Microbiology Research Journal International https://journalmrji.com/index.php/MRJI <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Microbiology Research Journal International (ISSN:&nbsp;2456-7043)</strong> is dedicated to publish research papers, reviews, and short communications in all areas of Microbiology such as virology, mycology, parasitology, bacteriology, clinical microbiology, phycology, parasitology, protozoology, microbial physiology, immunology, microbial genetics, medical microbiology, microbial pathogenesis and epidemiology disease pathology and immunology, probiotics and prebiotics</p> en-US contact@journalmrji.com (Microbiology Research Journal International) contact@journalmrji.com (Microbiology Research Journal International) Sat, 31 Oct 2020 11:18:02 +0000 OJS 3.1.1.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Natural Resistance Associated Macrophage Protein-1 Expression in Salmonella typhi Infection with Acute Recurrence State of Typhoid Fever in Endemic Areas, Indonesia https://journalmrji.com/index.php/MRJI/article/view/30258 <p><strong>Background and Aim:</strong> The molecular pathogenesis of typhoid fever is complex and the host susceptibility mechanisms such as Natural Resistance Associated Macrophages Protein-1 (NRAMP-1) are poorly understood. This study explores the expression of NRAMP-1 in the serum of Acute Recurrence State (ARS) of typhoid fever compared with typhoid fever patients and healthy persons.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Thirty of ARS of typhoid fever and 30 typhoid fever patients were collect from several Primary Health Care and Hospitals in the endemic area. Diagnosis of typhoid fever based on clinical symptoms and confirmed by blood culture. Healthy persons were collect from the Blood Transfusion Unit, Makassar, Indonesia. The expression of NRAMP-1 was determined using Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The mean of NRAMP-1 expression in 30 ARS of typhoid fever and 30 typhoid fever were found 10.941,56 pg/mL and 11.027,65 pg/mL, respectively. However, the mean of NRAMP-1 expression in healthy persons was found 21.103,91 pg/mL.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>No different the expression of NRAMP-1 in ARS of typhoid fever compared with typhoid fever patients. However, expression of NRAMP-1 in both ARS of typhoid fever and typhoid fever showed significantly lower than healthy persons. Future study is needed to explore the other molecular factors involved to become ARS.</p> Ade Rifka Junita, Firdaus Hamid, Rosdiana Natzir, Rosana Agus, Burhanuddin Bahar, Mochammad Hatta ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journalmrji.com/index.php/MRJI/article/view/30258 Wed, 28 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Multiple-Antibiotic Resistance and Presence of CTX-M Genes among Enterobacteriaceae Isolates from Different Sources in Iwo, Osun State, Nigeria https://journalmrji.com/index.php/MRJI/article/view/30260 <p><strong>Aims:</strong> Assessment of the antibiotic resistance pattern and detection of genes responsible for the β-lactam resistance in enterobacteria isolated from different sources was carried out in the course of the study.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study: </strong>Samples from different sources in Iwo, Osun State, Nigeria including Abattoir and Cow ranch. The study was done August 2015 to May 2016.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Isolation was done on nutrient agar,<em> xylose lysine deoxycholate </em>(XLD) and identified using standard procedures. Antibiotic multidisc containing the following ceftazidime (30 µg), cefruroxime (30 µg), gentamicin (10 µg), ciprofloxacin (5 µg), ofloxacin (5 µg), augmentin (30 µg), nitrofurantoin (300 µg), and ampicillin ( ) were used to study the resistance patterns of the bacteria. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was carried out to screen for CTX-M gene in beta-lactam resistant isolates and statistical analyses were carried out using the analysis of variance test (ANOVA) and the PAST (paleontology statistics) software analytical package where applicable.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Fifty-two (52) entrobacteria consisting of nine genera (9) were isolated and identified, <em>Serratia</em> (13), <em>Enterobacter</em> (11), <em>Klebsiella </em>(6), <em>E. coli</em> (5), <em>Proteus</em> (5), <em>Salmonella</em> (3), <em>Shigella</em> (3), <em>Citrobacter </em>(3), and <em>Yersinia </em>(3). The highest resistance observed by the isolates was to ampicillin (80.7%) followed by augmentin (40%) and 33% resistance of the isolates to cefuroxime, while all the isolates were sensitive to ceftazidime, gentamicin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and nitrofurantoin. Nineteen of the isolates were resistant to three or more of the tested antibiotics i.e. multiple resistance while five of the multidrug resistant isolates show the presence of CTX-M β-lactam resistance gene which seems to be responsible for their resistance to the β-lactam antibiotic tested.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> There are a number of organisms in the environment that have developed multiple resistances to several antibiotics and in view of this thwart treatment; of major concern are the Enterobacteriaceae family in which new resistance characteristics have been discovered leading to increasing resistance to standard available drug therapies.</p> Adeleke, Olufeyikemi A., Owoseni, Abimbola A. ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journalmrji.com/index.php/MRJI/article/view/30260 Fri, 27 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Microbiological Research of the Effects of Electromagnetic Fields of the Bacteria Escherichia coli, Enterococci, Coliforms and Clostridium perfringens https://journalmrji.com/index.php/MRJI/article/view/30261 <p>The aim of the study was to analyze the microbiological effects of electromagnetic fields with method of Drossinakis with reliable microbiological methods. A comparative analysis of the number of bacteria of a given species before and after electromagnetic influence was performed. For the research was applied water with the following bacteria –<em>Escherichia coli, Enterococci, Coliforms and Clostridium perfringens</em>.</p> <p>The method of Drossinakis is including the electromagnetic waves in the electromagnetic spectrum, from 1 Hz to 3<sup>.</sup>10<sup>15 </sup>Hz. For the inhibiting effects on bacteria the method of Drossinakis is including low frequencies from 20 till 70 Hz.</p> <p>The study shows the effects with low frequencies electromagnetic waves for decreasing of the number of bacteria. The controlled microbiological parameters are defined by the membrane method and by using of differential diagnostic nutrient media at 24 hours.</p> Nedyalka Valcheva, Ignat Ignatov ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journalmrji.com/index.php/MRJI/article/view/30261 Sat, 28 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Epidemiological Assessment and Challenges of the COVID-19 Pandemic in Nigeria https://journalmrji.com/index.php/MRJI/article/view/30259 <p>The COVID-19 which belongs to the coronaviridae family has continued to spread in a geometric progression version. The disease that originated from Wuhan, Hubei, China has spread to all the continents of the World except Antarctica continent. As of the 5<sup>th</sup> of August, 2020 there are over 18 million reported cases of COVID-19 from 214 countries and territories of the world. More than 10 million people have recovered while approximately 696,147 people have died due to COVID-19. This review provides general information on the COVID-19 and gives deep insight into the course of the disease, interventions challenges and possible solutions in Nigeria “the giant of Africa”.</p> <p>Scientific databases including Science Direct, Pub Med, Elsevier, Scopus, and Nature were explored. Data has also been accessed from case reports, newspaper reports, internet data, World Health Organisation (WHO) reports, Centre of Disease Control (CDCs) and Nigerian Centre of Disease Control (NCDCs) reports. US National Library of Medicine, Clinicaltrials.gov, has been accessed to get information about ongoing clinical trials. The literature survey started in the first week of April, 2020 and was completed in the first week of August, 2020. The clinical symptoms of COVID-19 patients are generally categorized as critical, severe, moderate and mild or even asymptomatic in descending order in terms of severity. Predictions from experts in different parts of the World concerning the possible impact of the disease in Africa have been on the downside which is due to a lot of glaring factors including poor health facilities and services.&nbsp;</p> Stephen Olaide Aremu, Emmanuel Olumuyiwa Onifade, Babatunde Fatoke, Samuel Olusegun Itodo, Oluwatosin Oladipo, Olufisayo Bademosi, Temilade Taiwo Oleni, Tosin Adebola Ode, Ebenezer Oluwasanmi Abeleje, Adebowale Olasehinde Folorunso ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journalmrji.com/index.php/MRJI/article/view/30259 Fri, 13 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000