Microbiology Research Journal International https://journalmrji.com/index.php/MRJI <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Microbiology Research Journal International (ISSN:&nbsp;2456-7043)</strong> is dedicated to publish research papers, reviews, and short communications in all areas of Microbiology such as virology, mycology, parasitology, bacteriology, clinical microbiology, phycology, parasitology, protozoology, microbial physiology, immunology, microbial genetics, medical microbiology, microbial pathogenesis and epidemiology disease pathology and immunology, probiotics and prebiotics</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US Microbiology Research Journal International 2456-7043 Seroprevalence of IgM Antibody in Atypical Pneumonia Causing Pathogens by Pneumoslide, IFA https://journalmrji.com/index.php/MRJI/article/view/30223 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Atypical bacterial and viral pathogens play an important role in atypical pneumonia are responsible for one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality, particularly in developing countries.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The purpose of this study to determine the prevalence of bacterial and viral pathogens causing acute atypical pneumonia in different age groups and seasonality patterns of prevalence in India.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>This retrospective study was conducted on 680 samples tested during December 2018 to August 2019, performed at Microbiology department of <em>Dr. Lal Path Labs.</em> Serum samples were used for Pneumoslide IgM test diagnose 9 Atypical bacterial &amp; viral pathogens: <em>Legionella pneumophila (LP), Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP), Coxiella burnetti (COX), Chlamydophila pneumonia (CP) Adenovirus (ADV), Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) Influenza A (INFA), Influenza B (INFB), Parainfluenza serotyp</em>es 1,2 &amp;3(PIVs).</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Of a total 477(70.1%) samples were positive for atypical pneumonia pathogens. Atypical pneumonia was seen in extremes of age ie: &lt;=5 years and &gt;60 elderly adults without much of a gender bias. Co infections was seen in 62.1%. <em>Legionella pneumophila </em>(42.5%) was the dominant pathogen followed by<em> Influenza B </em>(41.7%)<em> Mycoplasma pneumoniae </em>(33.4%), <em>Parainfluenza serotyp</em>es 1,2 &amp;3 (29.4%) respectively. Atypical pneumonia has a spring predominance that is peaking in March.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Among six predominant atypical pathogens, <em>Legionella pneumophila </em>and <em>Influenza B </em>was most predominant pathogens, as a causative agent of atypical pneumonia followed by <em>Mycoplasma pneumoniae</em> seen mostly in young (0-5 years) comparison to all age groups. Hence, Pneumoslide IgM as a multi panel test needed to ensure initiation of targeted therapy. Pneumoslide IgM, by IFA is a rapid, cost effective easy to identify &amp; classify atypical pneumonia causing pathogens.</p> Puneeta Singh Shalabh Malik Vandana Lal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-04 2020-07-04 1 10 10.9734/mrji/2020/v30i630223 Molecular Identification of Virulence Genes of Escherichia coli Isolated from Cow Milk and Its Products in Abuja, Nigeria https://journalmrji.com/index.php/MRJI/article/view/30226 <p>Shiga toxin-producing <em>Escherichia coli </em>have been identified as an emerging foodborne pathogen which portends serious risk to human health. Cow milk and its products are potential sources of shiga toxin-producing <em>Escherichia coli</em>. A relatively small number from the family of shiga toxin-producing <em>Escherichia coli</em> are pathogenic. It becomes necessary that Cow milk and milk products are regularly screened for the presence of virulence genes in microbes. The study aimed to genetically determine the presence of virulence genes that are characteristic of Enterohaemorrhagic <em>E. coli </em>in 600 milk samples<em>. </em>The <em>E. coli</em> isolates were recovered from the milk samples (n=35), biochemically examined and genetically screened for virulence genes by multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The results of the molecular profiling revealed that (<em>stx2</em>) was detected in 17(60.7%), (<em>hlyA</em>) 11(39.3%) and <em>eae</em> genes 8(28.6%) of the <em>E. coli</em> isolates respectively, while (<em>stx1</em>) was not detected. The results indicated a high prevalence of virulent shiga toxin-producing <em>Escherichia coli</em> in the milk samples. Priority attention should be given to this microbe as it will demand stringent steps in the detection given that they are known to be rigorous in identification.</p> E. C. Okechukwu E. U. Amuta G. M. Gberikon N. Chima B. Yakubu J. C. Igwe M. Njoku ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-04 2020-07-04 11 18 10.9734/mrji/2020/v30i630226 Microbial Quality of Some Leafy Vegetables Sold in Iree https://journalmrji.com/index.php/MRJI/article/view/30227 <p>This study investigates the microbial quality of some common leafy vegetables sold in Iree. Three common leafy vegetables were used which were <em>Amaranthus viridis</em> (‘Tete’), <em>Corchorus olito rus</em> (‘Ewedu’) and <em>Talinum triangulare </em>(‘Gbure’). The samples were bought from the Iree main market and packaged in a sterilized aluminium covered&nbsp; plates and were transferred immediately into the laboratory where they were examined for Total viable counts, coliform counts and Total fungal counts. The average total viable counts was 2.2 x 10<sup>5</sup>cfu/mL for <em>Amaranthus viridis</em>, 2.3 x 10<sup>5 </sup>cfu/mL for <em>Corchorus olitorius </em>and 1.9 x 10<sup>5 </sup>for <em>Talinum triangulare</em>. Seven bacteria belonging to five genera and three fungal Spp. were isolated, which include, <em>Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis</em>, <em>Bacillus cereus</em>, <em>Salmonella enteritidis</em>, <em>Enterobacter aerogenes</em>, <em>Eschericia coli</em>, <em>Micrococcus luteus</em>, <em>Aspergillus niger</em>, <em>Aspergillus flavus</em>, <em>Penicilium italicum </em>respectively. <em>Staphylococcus</em> (26%) was the most predominantly isolated followed by <em>Bacillus subtilis</em> (13%), <em>Eschericia coli </em>(12%),<em> Streptococcus </em>and<em> Micrococcus</em> (11%), Enterobacteriacea (9%), fungal (10%) and <em>Bacillus cereus</em> was the least (8%). These results showed that agricultural practices on these vegetables, like transportation, irrigation and even fertilizer application method could pose risks to the consumers, it is therefore advised that proper cooking of these leafy vegetables by boiling in 100°C boiling water, should strictly be adhered to before consumption not just mere blanching.</p> O. O. Efunwole T. A. Ihum O. R. Adebayo O. A. Ajewole D. O. Alaje ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-06 2020-07-06 19 22 10.9734/mrji/2020/v30i630227 Phytochemical Analysis, In vitro Antibacterial Activity and Rate of Kill of Different Fractions of Dacryodes edulis Leaf https://journalmrji.com/index.php/MRJI/article/view/30228 <p><em>Dacryodes edulis</em> is a fruit <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tree">tree</a> attaining a height of 18–40 meters mostly grown around the house and rarely in the forest. It has a relatively short <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trunk_(botany)">trunk</a> and a deep, dense crown and it is native to Africa hence often called African pear. The leaves are a compound with 5-8 pairs of leaflets. Acetone extract/solvent fractions of the leaves of <em>Dacryodes edulis</em> were used. The <em>in vitro </em>antibacterial activities and rate of kill of different fractions were investigated. The phytochemical screening was done by some chemical tests, antibacterial activity by agar well diffusion method and rate of kill was carried out on <em>S. aureus</em> and <em>E. coli</em> organisms. The fractions exhibited antibacterial activities with zones of inhibition ranged between 20 and 30 mm by Aqueous (AQU) fraction while Dichloromethane (DCM) fraction ranged between 22 and 32 mm. The standard antibiotics, streptomycin ranged between 10 and 20 mm and ampicillin between 11 and 27 mm. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) of both fractions had range values between 0.78 and 6.25 mg/mL. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, terpenoid and glycoside. Overall, the two fractions had better activities than the standard antibiotics used. The time kill assay showed that the percentage of the cells killed increased with increasing concentrations of the fractions, as well as, contact time intervals. The AQU fraction killed 100% of <em>Escherichia coli</em> and <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> cells at concentration of 4.68 mg/mL (3 X MIC) within 120 min while DCM fraction killed 100% of <em>Escherichia coli </em>cells within 90 min at a concentration of 4.68 mg/mL and killed 100% of <em>S. aureus</em> cells within 120 min at a concentration of 3.12 mg/mL (2X MIC). In conclusion, <em>D. edulis </em>leaf fraction has a broad spectrum antibacterial activity, with the AQU and DCM fractions being bactericidal as exemplified by the killing rate and MIC index of 2 (ratio of MBC/MIC) for both fractions.</p> R. E. Hassan-Olajokun A. M. Deji-Agboola O. O. Olasunkanmi T. A. Banjo O. Olaniran A. E. Awoyeni O. M. Ajayi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-07-06 2020-07-06 23 35 10.9734/mrji/2020/v30i630228