Microbiology Research Journal International 2020-11-25T11:14:19+00:00 Microbiology Research Journal International Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Microbiology Research Journal International (ISSN:&nbsp;2456-7043)</strong> is dedicated to publish research papers, reviews, and short communications in all areas of Microbiology such as virology, mycology, parasitology, bacteriology, clinical microbiology, phycology, parasitology, protozoology, microbial physiology, immunology, microbial genetics, medical microbiology, microbial pathogenesis and epidemiology disease pathology and immunology, probiotics and prebiotics</p> Natural Resistance Associated Macrophage Protein-1 Expression in Salmonella typhi Infection with Acute Recurrence State of Typhoid Fever in Endemic Areas, Indonesia 2020-11-25T11:14:19+00:00 Ade Rifka Junita Firdaus Hamid Rosdiana Natzir Rosana Agus Burhanuddin Bahar Mochammad Hatta <p><strong>Background and Aim:</strong> The molecular pathogenesis of typhoid fever is complex and the host susceptibility mechanisms such as Natural Resistance Associated Macrophages Protein-1 (NRAMP-1) are poorly understood. This study explores the expression of NRAMP-1 in the serum of Acute Recurrence State (ARS) of typhoid fever compared with typhoid fever patients and healthy persons.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Thirty of ARS of typhoid fever and 30 typhoid fever patients were collect from several Primary Health Care and Hospitals in the endemic area. Diagnosis of typhoid fever based on clinical symptoms and confirmed by blood culture. Healthy persons were collect from the Blood Transfusion Unit, Makassar, Indonesia. The expression of NRAMP-1 was determined using Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The mean of NRAMP-1 expression in 30 ARS of typhoid fever and 30 typhoid fever were found 10.941,56 pg/mL and 11.027,65 pg/mL, respectively. However, the mean of NRAMP-1 expression in healthy persons was found 21.103,91 pg/mL.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>No different the expression of NRAMP-1 in ARS of typhoid fever compared with typhoid fever patients. However, expression of NRAMP-1 in both ARS of typhoid fever and typhoid fever showed significantly lower than healthy persons. Future study is needed to explore the other molecular factors involved to become ARS.</p> 2020-10-28T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Epidemiological Assessment and Challenges of the COVID-19 Pandemic in Nigeria 2020-11-25T11:14:18+00:00 Stephen Olaide Aremu Emmanuel Olumuyiwa Onifade Babatunde Fatoke Samuel Olusegun Itodo Oluwatosin Oladipo Olufisayo Bademosi Temilade Taiwo Oleni Tosin Adebola Ode Ebenezer Oluwasanmi Abeleje Adebowale Olasehinde Folorunso <p>The COVID-19 which belongs to the coronaviridae family has continued to spread in a geometric progression version. The disease that originated from Wuhan, Hubei, China has spread to all the continents of the World except Antarctica continent. As of the 5<sup>th</sup> of August, 2020 there are over 18 million reported cases of COVID-19 from 214 countries and territories of the world. More than 10 million people have recovered while approximately 696,147 people have died due to COVID-19. This review provides general information on the COVID-19 and gives deep insight into the course of the disease, interventions challenges and possible solutions in Nigeria “the giant of Africa”.</p> <p>Scientific databases including Science Direct, Pub Med, Elsevier, Scopus, and Nature were explored. Data has also been accessed from case reports, newspaper reports, internet data, World Health Organisation (WHO) reports, Centre of Disease Control (CDCs) and Nigerian Centre of Disease Control (NCDCs) reports. US National Library of Medicine,, has been accessed to get information about ongoing clinical trials. The literature survey started in the first week of April, 2020 and was completed in the first week of August, 2020. The clinical symptoms of COVID-19 patients are generally categorized as critical, severe, moderate and mild or even asymptomatic in descending order in terms of severity. Predictions from experts in different parts of the World concerning the possible impact of the disease in Africa have been on the downside which is due to a lot of glaring factors including poor health facilities and services.&nbsp;</p> 2020-11-13T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##