Microbiology Research Journal International 2020-08-07T10:12:39+00:00 Microbiology Research Journal International Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Microbiology Research Journal International (ISSN:&nbsp;2456-7043)</strong> is dedicated to publish research papers, reviews, and short communications in all areas of Microbiology such as virology, mycology, parasitology, bacteriology, clinical microbiology, phycology, parasitology, protozoology, microbial physiology, immunology, microbial genetics, medical microbiology, microbial pathogenesis and epidemiology disease pathology and immunology, probiotics and prebiotics</p> Dermatophytes and Other Keratinophiic Fungi in Soils of Anguilla, British West Indies (BWI) 2020-08-07T10:12:39+00:00 Harish C. Giugnani Kirtika Venketesan <p><strong>Aims:</strong> Keratinophilic fungi include dermatophytes and a variety of other fungi. Information on their occurrence in several Caribbean countries is scarce. This study investigates occurrence of dermatophytes and other keratinophiic fungi in soils of Anguilla, British West Indies (BWI) and emphasizes its public health significance.</p> <p>Study design: Place and Duration of Study: The study was done in the Department of Microbiology, Saint James School of Medicine, Anguilla (BWI). One hundred and ten samples of soils from habitats in several localities in Anguilla were examined.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The samples were processed by Vanbreuseghem’s hair-bait technique. Bits of fungal growth on hair-bates were cultured on Mycobiotic agar to get pure cultures. Identification of the isolates was accomplished by a detailed study of colonial characters and microscopical features of the isolates.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Eighty-five isolates of keratinophilic fungi were recovered. The identified species included two geophilic dermatophytes, <em>Micrsporum fulvum</em> and <em>M.</em> <em>gypseum</em> and two species of <em>Chrysosporium</em>, namely <em>Chrysosporium keratinophilum</em> and <em>C</em>. <em>indicum</em>, <em>M. fulvum</em> was the predominant species being recovered from 35 (31.8%) of the soil samples followed by <em>C. keratinophilum</em> being isolated from 15.5% of the samples. <em>M</em>. <em>gypseum</em> was present in 8 (7.3%) of the samples. The prevalence of other species was as follows: <em>C</em>. <em>indicum</em> (13.6%), <em>Chrysosporium</em> spp. (4.5%) and <em>Sepedonium</em> spp. (4.5%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The preponderance occurrence of <em>M</em>.<em> fulvum</em> over <em>M</em>. <em>gypseum</em> and that of C.<em> keratinophilum</em> over <em>C</em>. <em>indicum</em> in soils of Anguilla is a remarkable observation. The farmers, other workers, school children who come in contact with soil are likely to be infected with a dermatophytes and also the visitors to the beaches and the local population nearby.</p> 2020-07-25T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Seroprevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Bouaké, Côte D´Ivoire 2020-08-04T15:03:25+00:00 A. Diarrassouba S. F. Toure Y. L. C. Karidioula A. M. Konan A. Traoré P. Monemo E. A. Anoh S. Karidioula J. O. N. Tadet S. D. Adon R. Asse C. Akoua- Koffi <p><strong>Aim:</strong> Determine the prevalence of serological markers and identify risk factors associated with Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection in patients screened at the Bouake teaching hospital.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> Retrospective cross sectional study was conducted</p> <p><strong>Study Site and&nbsp;Period:</strong> Bacteriology-Virology Laboratory/Bouake teaching hospital, Côte d´Ivoire, from April 2016 to January 2018.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>In all 1076 study participants<strong>, </strong>venous blood sample was collected and screened for HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibody against HBV core antigen (anti-HBc), by electrochemical-luminescence following the manufacturer protocols.&nbsp; Additionally, questionnaires were used to collect information regarding sociodemographic variables and possible risk factors for hepatitis B infection.&nbsp; Data were processed and analyzed using EPI INFO 7 software<strong>. </strong></p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>A total of 1076 participants were included in this study with a median age of 30.0 years (range: 3 months; 82 years). Of which, 514 (48%) were female and 562 (52%) were male with female / male ratio 1.09. HBsAg was detected in 24,3% of participants and 82 1 (76,3%) were exposed to the risk of HBV infection (anti-HBc positive). High rate of HBV infection was detected in male (27.93%) (p=0.003). The age group of 15–45 years were more infected (27.18%) (p&lt;0.0001). The detection rate of HBe antigen (HBeAg), anti-HBe and anti-HBc (total antibodies) were respectively 12%; 86% and 7%. Of 938 participants who were not vaccinated against HBV, 240 (25.58%) were HBsAg-positive. HBV vaccine uptake was protective against HBV infection (AOR =0.580; 95% CI 0.359-0.938; p=0.024).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The rate of carriage of HBs antigen was higer than national rate, which confirms that Bouake is a highly endemic area for HBV infection. Vaccination against Hepatitis B virus is the only way to prevent and to fight effectively against this infection. It is therefore important to encourage the screening and vaccination in the general population.</p> 2020-08-04T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Genotyping of Canine Distemper Virus Lineage in Clinically Infected Dogs in Puducherry, Southern India 2020-08-06T12:00:32+00:00 Megavarnan Abirami Mouttou Vivek Srinivas Jayalakshmi Vasu Prabhakar Xavier Antony Jacob Thanislass Muthuraj Muthaiah Hirak Kumar Mukhopadhyay <p><strong>Aims: </strong>This study aimed to determine the Canine Distemper Virus (CDV) lineage circulating in the Puducherry region (Southern India) and how they are genetically and antigenically related to the vaccine and other known CDV lineages around the world.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> The study involved genetic characterization of the canine distemper virus strains/lineages circulating in the clinically suspected dogs in the field.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> Department of Veterinary Clinical Complex, Animal Husbandry Department, Private Veterinary Clinics, NGOs like Bark India, People for Animals organization, Puducherry between January 2018 and December 2019.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The ocular and nasal swabs were collected from 40 dogs suspected for canine distemper from Puducherry state (Southern India). Following viral RNA Extraction and cDNA synthesis; the cDNAs were screened for virus by targeting the CDV Nucleocapsid (N) gene using Reverse Transcriptase PCR. Further, the N gene positive cDNAs were genetically characterized for sequence analysis of the CDV hemagglutinin (H) gene.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A total of 15 (37.5%) out of 40 ocular/ nasal swabs were found to be CDV positive by RT-PCR targeting the N gene. The sequence analysis of the H gene revealed forty-nine non-synonymous and thirty-three synonymous mutations (out of 356 amino acids) in comparison with vaccine strain. The vaccine virus (Onderstepoort strain), which is related to the America 1 lineage, possessed high level of (30 – 35 i.e. more than 10%) amino acid divergence with the CDV sequences analysed in this study. The Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the present CDV sequences formed a separate monophyletic group with the CDV sequences of other Indian dogs and the Indian wildlife (Lion) and is clustered away from the vaccine strain. The CDV sequences were closer to the CDVs of Africa - 2 lineage than the other Asian lineages.&nbsp; The Recombination analysis revealed no potential breakpoints and recombination events.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Together, these findings highlighted the possible existence of the novel Indian CDV lineage/s distinct from the vaccine strain and from other known Asian lineages.</p> 2020-08-06T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Epidemiology of Bacterial Contamination of Inert Hospital Surfaces and Equipment in Critical and Non-critical Care Units: A Brazilian Study 2020-08-06T13:50:41+00:00 Dayane Otero Rodrigues Laís da Paixao Peixoto Erica Tatiane Mourao Barros Julianne Rodrigues Guimaraes Bruna Clemente Gontijo Jaisa Leite Almeida Lucas Guimaraes de Azevedo Julia Cristina Oliveira e Lima Deyse Silva Camara <p><strong>Aims: </strong>The hospital environment is an important reservoir of microorganisms, including multidrug-resistant pathogens, which can cause in-patient contamination and healthcare-related infections.&nbsp; The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology of bacterial contamination (contaminated sites, pathogen species and their antimicrobial susceptibility, and identifying of multidrug-resistant microorganisms - MDR) of inert hospital surfaces and medical equipment in two public hospitals in Northern Brazil.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This was a cross-sectional study with 243 samples (<em>n</em> = 208, from Hospital A; and <em>n</em> = 35, from Hospital B) collected by friction with humidified swabs from inert surfaces and equipment. Sequentially the samples were cultivated and bacterial species were identified by culture-based methods and tested for their susceptibility through agar diffusion assay according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI).</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Most inert surfaces and equipment analyzed presented bacterial contamination (95.5%). <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> was the main pathogen of clinical significance detected both in Hospital A (61.8%) and B (68.6%). Hospital A showed higher rates of isolated MDR bacteria than Hospital B, especially in the Adult Intensive Care Unit, which included methicillin-resistant <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> (MRSA) (52.7%), Enterobacteria resistant to 4<sup>th</sup> generation cephalosporins (19.4%), and multidrug-resistant <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> (2.8%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The failures in the control of bacterial contamination of inert surfaces and equipment in the two hospitals analyzed reinforce the need for a revised protocol for cleaning and disinfection of the inert surfaces and equipment, and for regulation of antibiotic dispensing, mainly in the AICU of Hospital A, which was found to be a reservoir of MDR pathogens.</p> 2020-08-06T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Lactobacillus rhamnosus V5 Prevents Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Invasion in Cell Culture and Mice Infection 2020-08-06T14:17:07+00:00 C. T. Tsuruda P. C. De Souza E. K. Nishio R. S. Almeida L. A. Panagio A. A. S. Baptista S. Garcia D. O. Pinheiro E. J. A. Araújo M. Chue-Gonçalves R. K. T. Kobayashi G. Nakazato <p><strong>Aims: </strong>The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective capacity of the exopolysaccharide-producing <em>Lactobacillus rhamnosus</em> V5 against invasion <em>in vitro</em> and <em>in vivo</em> with <em>S. typhimurium</em>.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> We tested the antimicrobial activity of the compound extracted from the &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;lactobacilli against <em>S. typhimurium</em> directly, also we tested the interference of this compound in <em>S. typhimurium</em> adherence and invasion of HeLa and HEp-2 cells (<em>in vitro</em> testings). For <em>in vivo</em> experiments, we used 16 BALB/c female mice. Through gavage method we introduced <em>L. rhamnosus </em>as probiotic and then infected mice with <em>S. enterica</em> serovar typhimurium. After euthanasia, spleen, liver and Peyer's patches removed for microbiological and histopathological analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The results showed that lactobacilli were able to produce antimicrobial compounds &nbsp;against <em>S. typhimurium</em>. These lactobacilli inhibited the adhesion and invasion of <em>S. typhimurium</em>&nbsp; in HeLa and HEp-2 cells, respectively. The challenge assay in the murine model demonstrated a decrease in pathogen translocation in the spleen and liver from mice treated with probiotic as&nbsp; well as protection of ileal tissue in lactobacilli-treated mice. The histopathological analysis demonstrated the presence of prominent lymphoid nodules in the ileum from the non-treated lactobacilli mice.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Our results suggest that <em>L. rhamnosus</em> improved the effectiveness of the intestinal barrier and, thus, could be a potential probiotic to control salmonellosis.</p> 2020-08-06T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##