Microbiology Research Journal International 2021-01-23T12:18:27+00:00 Microbiology Research Journal International Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Microbiology Research Journal International (ISSN:&nbsp;2456-7043)</strong> is dedicated to publish research papers, reviews, and short communications in all areas of Microbiology such as virology, mycology, parasitology, bacteriology, clinical microbiology, phycology, parasitology, protozoology, microbial physiology, immunology, microbial genetics, medical microbiology, microbial pathogenesis and epidemiology disease pathology and immunology, probiotics and prebiotics</p> Effect of Waste Separation on the Composting of Organic Waste Fraction from Domestic Solid Waste 2021-01-23T12:18:27+00:00 Douglas, Salome Ibietela Williams, Janet Olufunmilayo Ekeke, Joy Ijeoma <p>In Nigeria, due to lack of sanitary landfills and general poor attitude towards waste management, various types of wastes such as: commercial, hospital, construction and domestic wastes are mixed and transported in open trucks to unprotected open dumpsites. This is likely to interfere with degradation of biodegradable wastes by non-biodegradable components, which are non-permeable to water and gases. These factors are needed by biodegrading materials for adequate decomposition. This study therefore, evaluates the effect of waste separation on natural biodegradation of solid domestic waste. Domestic waste samples were obtained from three different households at Rivers State University campus senior staff quarters, Port Harcourt, Nigeria and were sorted and categorised into biodegradable (organic), mixed fractions (inorganic and organic) and non-biodegradable. These were composted in open containers and monitored. Samples were withdrawn biweekly and analysed for microbiological and some physicochemical parameters for a period of 12 weeks. Morphological and biochemical characteristics were used for identification of isolates. Statistical analyses of the results were performed using SPSS version 21. Results of total heterotrophic bacterial counts in the biodegradable fraction of the wastes recorded the highest counts that ranged from 8.2±0.01x10<sup>5 </sup>to 8.5±0.01x180<sup>6</sup>Cfu/g followed by the mixture, that ranged from 8.1±0.02 x10<sup>4</sup>Cfu/g to 6.4 ±0.01x10<sup>5</sup>Cfu/g, paper waste that ranged from 5.0 ±0.00 x10<sup>3</sup> to 6.7 ±0.01 x10<sup>4</sup>Cfu/g, metal waste; ranging from 4.0 ±0.00 x 10<sup>2</sup> to 4.7±0.01 x10<sup>3</sup>Cfu/g, plastics waste; ranging from 2.1±2.8 x10<sup>3</sup> to 4.3 ±0.02 x 10<sup>2</sup>Cfu/g and glass waste that ranged from 4.0 ±0.00 x10<sup>2</sup> to 4.7±0.01 x 10<sup>3</sup>Cfu/g. The following bacterial genera were identified: <em>Bacillus, Providentia, Proteus, Staphylococcus, Escherichia, Enterobacter, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, Streptococcus, Micrococcus, Citrobacter, Acetobacter, Serratia, </em>and<em> Chryseobacterium</em>. Fungi identified belong to the following genera: <em>Aspergillus, Penicillium, Mucor, Rhizopus, Saccharomyces, Alternaria, Chlamydosporium, Fusarium </em>and<em> Candida</em>. At the end of the monitoring period, 50% of the biodegradable category, 31% of the mixed category and 17% of the paper waste were degraded. The other categories, metals, plastics and glass did not show differences in weight loss during the monitoring period. Results of statistical analyses revealed that there was significant difference in the decomposition rate of the biodegradable and mixed wastes samples at P&lt;0.05, when compared to the other categories. Hence, waste separation into biodegradable and non-biodegradable categories enhanced the maximum rate of degradation of the organic portion and this would reduce the amount of wastes at dumpsites/landfills.</p> 2020-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sources of Fungal Contamination of Fresh and Dried Fish in Kisii County, Kenya 2021-01-23T12:18:27+00:00 Irene Seila Nyamwaka Ethel Monda Omwoyo Ombori Johnson Kwach <p>Aflatoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by <em>Aspergillus flavus</em> and <em>Aspergillus parasiticus</em> that frequently invade foods and feedstuffs. In humid climatic conditions like those found in Kisii County, growth of fungi on dried fish and fish feeds is accelerated due to absorption of moisture from the environment as a result of poor storage and sometimes improper drying. This can lead to creation of favourable conditions for the growth of the toxigenic fungi and consequently production of aflatoxins. This study was conducted to determine the main sources of fungal contamination of selected fresh and dried fish sold in Kisii county, Kenya. Samples of fish were randomly obtained from four main markets in the county. A structured questionnaire was used to determine the sources of fish, mode and hygiene of transportation, handling of fish, duration of storage, hygiene of packaging materials and display environment of fish. Levels of fish contamination were expressed in form of colony forming units per gram (CFU/g) of fish. One-way analysis of variance was used to determine mean differences in parameters analysed. The results revealed that CFU/g of fish from control samples were significantly less than those from fresh and dried fish samples from the various sources (p&lt;0.05). There was generally no significant difference between CFU/g from both fresh and dried fish from the various sources. The study found out that fresh and dried fish sold in Kisii county are contaminated with fungi. There is therefore need for frequent surveillance on the sources of fish contamination and public sensitization of all those involved in fish supply chain.&nbsp; This will help reduce possible aflatoxin contamination thus promoting consumers’ healthy living.</p> 2020-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Antifungal Activities of Azardirachta indica Crude Extracts and Fractions against Strain 1161, P37005 and RM1000 2021-01-23T12:18:26+00:00 A. D. M. Owoyale M. Galadimma S. Y. Daniyan N. Adabara <p><em>Azardirachta indica</em> (neem) has served as an alternative medicine in the treatment of some common illnesses that have being associated to man. <em>Azardirachta indica</em> have proven effectively against certain fungi species that can infect human beings and cause disease. This study was aimed at determining the antifungal activities of<em> Azardirachta indica</em> crude extracts and fractions against certain <em>Candida albicans </em>strains: P37005, RM1000 and Strain1161. The reflux method was used for successive extraction of <em>Azardirachta indica</em> leaves which was done by three solvents namely: n- hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol. The leaves of <em>Azardirachta indica</em> was assayed for its phytochemicals components which was determined quantitatively. However, the various strains were subjected to the crude extracts of <em>Azardirachta indica</em> at a varying concentration of 40, 60, 80 and 100 mg/ml. The activity of n- hexane and methanol crude extracts had higher zones of inhibition than that of ethyl acetate crude extracts. The n- hexane crude extract showed a minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) value of 12.5 mg/ml and 50 mg/ml respectively against the tested strain of P37005(Isolate B4). The value of 6.25 mg/ml and 50 mg/ml were also observed for the n- hexane crude extract against strain RM 1000(Isolate B2). Whereas, the methanol crude extract presented a value of 6.25 mg/ml and 100mg/ml respectively against strain RM1000(Isolate B2). More so, the antifungal activities of the fractions were determined at a concentration of 5mg/ml and 10 mg/ml which showed inhibition for all the strains. The n-hexane fraction F3 of <em>Azardirachta indica</em> had an MIC and MFC value of 12.5 mg/ml and 25 mg/ml against P37005(IsolateB4). The value for the methanol fractions(F6) of <em>Azardirachta indica</em> against strain 1161(Isolate S5) was 3.125 mg/ml and 6.25 mg/ml. It is obvious from this study that the antifungal activities of the crudes and fractions used were less in activity compared to the standard antibiotics(fluconazole).</p> 2020-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Uropathogenic Bacteria and Antimicrobial Sensitivity Pattern among Diabetic Patients with Urinary Tract Infection 2021-01-20T11:54:06+00:00 Pratima Thapa Anita Sunar Dipendra Lamichanne Apeksha K. C. Arjan Dhungana Rajan Paudel Suresh Jaiswal Bishnu Raj Tiwari <p>Urinary tract infection means the presence and active multiplication of microorganisms within the urinary tract that affects any part of urinary tract. A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted on 601 urine sample to determine the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of bacteria causing urinary tract infection in 250 diabetic and 351non-diabetic patients from February 2016 to March 2016. All samples were investigated by standard laboratory procedures. Out of diabetic patient 111 (44.4%) were female and 139 (55.6%) were male and among non-diabetic, 234 (66.7%) were female and 117(33.3%) were male. The UTI prevalence rate was found to be 13% was statistically significant (p<sub>= </sub>0.02), among the significant growth 6.8% diabetic and 6.2% non-diabetic. <em>Escherichia coli </em>(54) was the most predominant organism (42.5% in diabetic and 57.5% non-diabetic) followed by <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>(8). Amikacin, Cotrimoxazole and Nitrofurantoin were most sensitive to <em>E. coli</em> isolated in diabetic and non-diabetic patients among the tested antimicrobials. High rate of resistance was observed with Norfloxacin and Nalidixic acid. Gentamicin, Cefotaxime, Cotrimoxazole and Ciprofloxacin were highly sensitive to <em>S. aureus</em> in diabetic patients while Oxacillin and Azithromycin were resistance and in non-diabetic patient highly sensitive antimicrobials were Azithromycin, Gentamicin, Cefotaxime, Cotrimoxazole, Vancomycin and Ofloxacin while Oxacillin was resistance. The antimicrobial sensitivity testing of uropathogenic bacterial isolates should be performed before the initiation of treatment for UTI. Prevalance of uropathogenic bacteria and resistance rate should be monitored regularly.</p> 2020-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Genomics and Phenotypical Characterization of Two New Lytic Bacteriophages for Biocontrol of Salmonella enterica 2021-01-23T06:09:40+00:00 Emanuele Serro Pottker Bruna Webber Samuel Cibulski Ricardo Zanella Viviane Girardi Adriana Souto Pereira Núncio Luciana Ruschel dos Santos Vladimir Pinheiro do Nascimento Laura Beatriz Rodrigues <p><strong>Aims: </strong>To perform the isolation, characterization and sequencing of the bacteriophages. To demonstrate that the bacteriophages can be used for biocontrol of different <em>Salmonella enterica</em> serovars.</p> <p><strong>Study Design: </strong>This study was an experimental study.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study: </strong>Bacteriology and Mycology Laboratory in the Veterinary Hospital at the Faculty of Agronomy and Veterinary Medicine of the University of Passo Fundo (FAMV/UPF), Biotechnology Center (CBiotec) of the Federal University of Paraíba (UFPB), Center for Microscopy and Microanalysis at the Faculty of Veterinary of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), between January – September 2016.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>Twelve <em>Salmonella enterica</em> serovars (<em>S.</em> Anatum, <em>S.</em> Agona, <em>S.</em> Brandenburg, <em>S.</em> Bredeney, <em>S. </em>Infantis, <em>S.</em> Lexington, <em>S.</em> Panama, <em>S.</em> Rissen, <em>S.</em> Schwarzengrund, <em>S.</em> Tennessee, <em>S</em>. Enteritidis ATCC 13076 and <em>S.</em> Typhimurium ATCC 14028) were selected to be the hosts. We isolate, purify, produce and determine the bacteriophage titers to verify the potential for lysis of these phages against the hosts. Having determined the action of the phages against the hosts, we performed the sequencing of the bacteriophages on the Illumina Mi-Seq platform and the morphology was performed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM).</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>We isolated, characterized and sequenced the genome of two new bacteriophages, <em>Salmonella</em> phage UPF_BP1, belonging to the family <em>Podoviridae</em> and <em>Salmonella</em> phage UPF_BP2, family <em>Myoviridae</em>. UPF_BP1 has lytic action against seven tested <em>Salmonella enterica</em> serovars, while UPF_BP2 has action against the twelve tested serovars.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The two new bacteriophages have a lytic action against different <em>Salmonella enterica</em> serovars, feeding our expectations for the development of alternatives for the use of antimicrobials, being possible candidates for use as a biocontrol of <em>Salmonella enterica</em> in food, animals and the environment.</p> 2020-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Rise of Fungi: Evidence on the Global Scale. Old Known Silences or Mysterious Threats to the Planet 2021-01-23T12:18:27+00:00 Diniz Pereira Leite Júnior Gisela Lara da Costa Elisangela Santana de Oliveira Dantas Diana Costa Nascimento Debora Moreira Ronaldo Sousa Pereira Regina Teixeira Barbieri Ramos Mário Mendes Bonci Margareth Léa da Silva Maia Rinaldo Ferreira Gandra Marcos Ereno Auler Marcia de Souza Carvalho Melhem Claudete Rodrigues Paula <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Fungi are organisms that present themselves in multicellular macroscopic and unicellular microscopic forms. They are eukaryotic, heterotrophic, reproduce asexually/sexually, cosmopolitan, achlorophyllates and are present in various climatic conditions and found in a variety of species and forms in nature.</p> <p><strong>Aims:</strong> Present the emerging evolution of fungi, their underreporting, scale and parameters that show their potential as a heterotrophic organism, decomposer and pathogen.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>In this review, we conducted a search emphasizing themes about fungi using the available databases and based on the scientific literature, we discussed a series of recent issues involving this wide realm and the constant controversies and expectations that guide the existence of fungi on the planet.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The results presented show an analysis of the action of these eukaryotic organisms and their interaction with other living beings, the constant changes in taxonomy, their pathogenic potential in plants and animals, issues related to the intrinsic resistance of some species to drugs and also the potential biotechnological for which these organisms demonstrate high plasticity.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The expansion of fungal diseases to the fauna and flora of the planet; leads us to believe that, unless measures are taken to reinforce biosafety issues, it will be increasingly necessary to take care of the health conditions of the planet to avoid a global collapse caused by microscopic beings.</p> 2020-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Microbiological Research of Mineral and Mountain Spring Waters in Bulgaria 2021-01-23T12:18:25+00:00 Ignat Ignatov <p>In Bulgaria is observed a great variety of spring waters. They are mineral and mountain spring waters. According to their temperature they can be cold (up to 37 °С), warm (from 37°C to 60 °C) and hot (over 60 °C). This is Bulgarian standard for the qualification of waters according to their temperature.</p> <p>The mountain spring waters are cold with temperature up to 25 °С.</p> <p>By their chemical composition they fall into three categories – low mineralized (up to 2 g/L), moderately mineralized (2 to 15 g/L) and highly mineralized (15&nbsp;– 30 g/L). According to their chemical composition the mineral waters are divided into sulphate, sulfide, hydrogen carbonate, chloride and carbonic. With regards to their gas composition they are nitrogen, sea and carbonic waters.</p> <p>The waters that correspond to the requirements of Decree No. 14 regarding the resort resources, resort localities and resorts, have balneological parameters.</p> <p>The main objective of the current review is to show springs, which have been examined by microbiological parameters and are in compliance with Ordinance No. 9 / 2001, Official State Gazette, issue 30, and decree No.&nbsp;178 / 23.07.2004 regarding the quality of water intended for drinking and household purposes, and Decree № 14 regarding the resort resources, resort localities and resorts.</p> 2020-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##