Antibiogram of Biofilm Producing Bacteria Isolated from Urine of Patients in Three Hospitals in Port Harcourt, Rivers State
Microbiology Research Journal International,
Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the antibiogram of biofilm producing bacteria isolated from urine of patients in three hospitals in Port Harcourt, Rivers State.
Study Design: The study employs statistical analysis of the data and interpretation
Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at three (3) hospitals; University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH), Meridian Hospital D / line branch (MRD1) and Meridian Hospital Ikoku branch, all located in Port Harcourt, Rivers State. Sample collection was for three (3) months, analysis was carried out daily and it lasted for six (6) months.
Methodology: A total of Forty-five (45) urine samples were collected for a period of three (3) months from the three (3) hospitals. The samples were labelled properly, according to date and time of collection. The collected samples were subjected to standard microbiological procedures which includes standard plate counts, identification, biofilm screening, sensitivity testing using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method, Phenotypic screening of extended spectrum beta lactamase and molecular characterization of the isolates
Results: The results of the bacterial population of urine samples from the hospitals showed that the total heterotrophic bacterial counts for Meridian Hospital D/line (MRD1), Meridian Hospital Ikoku (MRD2) and University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH) ranged from 4.93 - 6.30 x107cfu/ml. The Total coliform count ranged from 1.89-3.04 x106cfu/ml for Meridian Hospital D/line (MRD1), Meridian Hospital Ikoku (MRD2) and University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH). Total faecal coliform counts ranged from 0.78-1.11 x105CFU/ml for Meridian Hospital D/line (MRD1), Meridian Hospital Ikoku (MRD2) and University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH). A total of fifty-eight (58) bacterial isolates were isolated from urine of patients and 36(62.1%) isolates were identified as biofilm producers. The biofilm bacteria identified were 17.2% Staphylococcus,6.9% E. coli, 10.3% Pseudomonas, 6.9% Proteus ,10.3% Bacillus and 10.3% Enterococcus species. Biofilm forming ability of bacteria is considered a virulent factor and it is implicated to being a possible cause of increased resistance to most antibiotics. Varying susceptibility pattern was observed among biofilm isolates. Biofilm bacteria were resistant to several groups of antibiotics. Ofloxacin, Gentamycin, Imipenem and Nitrofurantoin can be used as drug of interest for most bacterial biofilm urinary tract infections. CTX-M and TET A gene were identified in the biofilm bacteria in this study to be possible factors that confer resistance to antibiotics. The presence of icaD and papC gene in the isolates whose genome were studied have been found to be possible factors that confers biofilm producing ability. This study indicates the emergence and rapid spread of biofilm producing bacteria and their resistance to antibiotics. Therefore, strict infection control practices as well as therapeutic guidance for confirmed infections should be rapidly initiated.
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