Epidemiology, Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Sexually Transmitted Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum Infections in Dschang, West Cameroon

Main Article Content

Thomas Djifack Tadongfack
Irina Lydia Sudeu Nitcheu
François Roger Nguepy Keubo
Henri Donald Mutarambirwa
Romeo Hervis Tedjieu
Cyrille Tasson Tatang
Delphine Ndfubu Shey
Aline Camerl Nzeffouo Selabi


Background: Genital Mycoplasmas play a key etiological role in several urogenital diseases among both Men and Women. Just to mention the few, they are often responsible of non-gonococcal urethritis, spontaneous abortion, preterm birth, low birth weight, infertility and perinatal mortality.

Aim: The study aimed to assess the prevalence of genital infections with Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum and their co-infection, as well as the susceptibility profiles to antibiotics commonly prescribed in Dschang, Cameroon.

Study Design: This was a 5-years retrospective cross-sectional study (including data from January 1, 2015 to December 31, 2019) conducted at Saint Vincent de Paul Hospital in Dschang, Cameroon.

Methods: Data of 338 participants received at the Gyneco-obstetric and Internal Medicine units, properly recorded, were collected from the Hospital Microbiology Laboratory records.

Results: The overall prevalence to genital Mycoplasmas was 57.4%, with 44.4% attributed to Ureaplasma urealyticum, 5.9% to Mycoplasma hominis and 7.1% to the Co-infection with the two bacteria isolates. Josamycin was the most sensitive antibiotic against Ureaplasma urealyticum (85.3%) and the co-infection (91.7%). Mycoplasma hominis isolates were more susceptible to three fluoroquinolones and tetracyclines with an equal sensitivity rate of 80.0%. Emphasis is on the increasing resistance of co-infection towards Macrolides (83.3%). Summarily, Josamycin was the antibiotic to which genital Mycoplasmas showed the lowest resistance rate (6.2%) while the highest (62.9%) was attributed to Acetylspyramycin.

Conclusion: The implementation of health policies in Cameroon should optimize on mechanisms of diagnosis, proper treatment and monitoring the antibiotic resistance of commonly isolated genital Mycoplasmas, regarding their impact on reproductive health.

Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, genital infection, antimicrobial susceptibility, epidemiology.

Article Details

How to Cite
Tadongfack, T. D., Nitcheu, I. L. S., Keubo, F. R. N., Mutarambirwa, H. D., Tedjieu, R. H., Tatang, C. T., Shey, D. N., & Selabi, A. C. N. (2020). Epidemiology, Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Sexually Transmitted Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum Infections in Dschang, West Cameroon. Microbiology Research Journal International, 30(11), 19-29. https://doi.org/10.9734/mrji/2020/v30i1130280
Original Research Article


Stefan R, Jeffery AH, Steve M, Stephen AM, Timothy AM, Barbara D et al. Jawetz Melnick & Adelberg’s Medical Microbiology, 28e | Chapter 25: Mycoplasmas and Cell Wall–Defective Bacteria; 2019.
Accessed 23 September 2020

Bayraktar MR, Ozerol IH, Gucluer N, Celik O. Prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum in pregnant women. Int J Infect Dis. 2010;14(2):e90–5.

D’Inzeo T, De Angelis G, Fiori B, Menchinelli G, Liotti FM, Morandotti GA et al. Comparison of mycoplasma IES, mycofast revolution and mycoplasma IST2 to detect genital mycoplasmas in clinical samples. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2017;11(1):98–101. Available:http://doi.org/10.3855/jidc.8039

Eastick K, Leeming JP, Caul EO, Horner PJ, Millar MR. A novel polymerase chain reaction assay to detect Mycoplasma genitalium. J Clin Pathol - Mol Pathol. 2003;56(1):25–8. Available:http://doi.org/10.1136/mp.56.1.25

Waites KB, Katz B, Schelonka RL. Mycoplasmas and ureaplasmas as neonatal pathogens. Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 2005;18(4):757–89.

Cassell GH, Waites KB, Watson HL, Crouse DT, Harasawa R. Ureaplasma urealyticum intrauterine infection: Role in prematurity and disease in newborns. Clin Microbiol Rev. 1993;6(1):69–87.

Hillier SL, Nugent RP, Eschenbach DA, Krohn MA, Gibbs RS, Martin DH et al. Association between Bacterial Vaginosis and Preterm Delivery of a Low-Birth-Weight Infant. N Engl J Med. 1995;333(26):1737–42. http://doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199512283332604.

Taylor-Robinson D, Furr PM. Update on sexually transmitted mycoplasmas. Lancet. 1998;351(SUPPL.3):12–5. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140 6736(98)90004-6.

Patai K, Szilágyi G, Hubay M, Szentmáriay IF, Paulin F. Severe endometritis caused by genital mycoplasmas after Caesarean section. J Med Microbiol.2005;54(12): 1249–50.

Dominique S, Delmas V, Horpitean V, Boccon-Gibod L. Infections génitales masculines. EMC - Mal Infect. 2004;1(1):55–65.

Waites K, Talkington D. New developments in human diseases due to mycoplasmas. Mycoplasmas Mol Biol Pathog Strateg Control. In: Alain B, Glenn Browning, editors.. Horizon Bioscience. 2005;289–354.

Horner PJ, Blee K, Falk L, van der Meijden W, Moi H. 2016 European guideline on the management of non-gonococcal urethritis. Int J STD AIDS. 2016;27(11):928–37. Available:http://doi.org/10.1177/0956462416648585

Wang QY, Li RH, Zheng LQ, Shang XH. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis in female outpatients, 2009–2013. J Microbiol Immunol Infect. 2016;49(3):359–62. Available:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmii.2014.06.007

Leli C, Mencacci A, Latino MA, Clerici P, Rassu M, Perito S et al. Prevalence of cervical colonization by Ureaplasma parvum, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Mycoplasma hominis and Mycoplasma genitalium in childbearing age women by a commercially available multiplex real-time PCR: An Italian observational multicentre study. J Microbiol Immunol Infect. 2018;51(2):220–25.

Redelinghuys MJ, Ehlers MM, Dreyer AW, Lombaard HA, Kock MM. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Ureaplasma species and Mycoplasma hominis in pregnant women. BMC Infect Dis. 2014;14(1):1–6. Available:https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2334-14-171

Compain F, Nodjikouambaye ZA, Sadjoli D, Moussa AM, Adawaye C, Bouassa R-SM et al. Low Prevalence of Common Sexually Transmitted Infections Contrasting with High Prevalence of Mycoplasma Asymptomatic Genital Carriage: A Community-Based Cross-Sectional Survey in Adult Women Living in N’Djamena, Chad. Open Microbiol J. 2019;13(1):222–29.

Fouzia R, Andreas P, Abderrahmane B, Loubna E, Douaa B, Naima E. Urogenital mycoplasma in moroccan population: Prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility. Int J Eng Technol. 2014;4(7):415–21.

Theophile NN, Jules Clement AN, Engowei C, C TN, C NN. Current management and government policies on sexually transmitted mycoplasma and chlamydia infections in the context of infertility: The case of Cameroon. Phytochemistry view project A biochemical evaluation of the effectiveness of the option b+ strategy in the antenatal prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Cameroon View project. African J Integr Heal. 2016;6(02) :54–6.

Njunda AL, Nsagha DS, Assob JCN, Palle JN, Kamga HL, Nde PF et al. Genital mycoplasmas in women attending the Yaoundé University Teaching Hospital in Cameroon. J Public ealth Africa. 2011; 2(1):68–71. Available:https://doi.org/10.4081/jphia.2011.e16

Longdoh NA, Gregory H-EE, Djeumako WA, Nguedia AJ-C, Francois-Xavier M-K, Tebit KE. The Occurrence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum in Pregnant Women in Three District Hospitals in Douala, Cameroon. J Adv Med Med Res. 2018;27(11):1–11. Available:https://doi.org/10.9734/jammr/2018/43356

Gonsu HK. Prevalence of Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum among women infected with HIV in Yaoundé-Cameroon. Int J Infect Dis. 2014;21:333. Available:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2014.03.1108

Ahouga Voufo R, Maïdadi MF, Mbah EC, Esemu LF, Fouodji HP, Molu JP et al. STUDY on the gender prevalence and sensitivity of urogenital mycoplasmas to antibiotics in Yaounde, Cameroon. Sci African. 2020;8.

Kenny GE, Hooton TM, Roberts MC, Cartwright FD, Hoyt J. Susceptibilities of genital mycoplasmas to the newer quinolones as determined by the agar dilution method. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1989;33(1):103–07.

World Health Organization. Global action plan on antimicrobial resistance; 2015. Accessed 23 September 2020.

Kasprzykowska U, Sobieszczańska B, Duda-Madej A, Secewicz A, Nowicka J, Gościniak G. A twelve–year retrospective analysis of prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Ureaplasma spp. and Mycoplasma hominis in the province of Lower Silesia in Poland. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2018;220:44–9.

Cécile Bébéar, Béatrice Berçot, Nicolas Dupin. Rapport annuel d’activités 2018.. Bordeaux ; 2018.
Accessed 23 September 2020.
Available:https://www.cnr ist.fr/ressources/editeur/rapport_CNR_IST_2018.pdf

Emile T, Tsafack HN. Vegetable production systems of swamp zone in urban environment in West Cameroon: Case of Dschang City water quality and protection of resources View project Soil genesis and landform View project; 2012. Accessed 24 September 2020.

Imudia AN, Detti L, Puscheck EE, Yelian FD, Diamond MP. The prevalence of Ureaplasma urealyticum, Mycoplasma hominis, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections, and the rubella status of patients undergoing an initial infertility evaluation. J Assist Reprod Genet. 2008;25(1):43–46.

Cao B, Zhao CJ, Yin YD, Zhao F, Song SF, Bai L et al. High prevalence of macrolide resistance in Mycoplasma pneumoniae isolates from adult and adolescent patients with respiratory tract infection in China. Clin Infect Dis. 2010. Available:http://doi.org/10.1086/653535

Nuradilova D, Kaliyeva L, Vaitkiene D, Kalimoldayeva S, Dasibekov K, Omiotek Z, et al. Ureaplasma SPP and mycoplasma hominis in women of reproductive age with pelvic inflammatory disease. Gulhane Med J. 2019;61(1):1–5.