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Background: Infections due to Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) have been recognized as an important public health problem worldwide. Resistant S. aureus strains emerged and its prevalence has been on the rise. Many risk factors were identified as comorbidities and impact seriously the health state of infected individual by resistant Staphylococcus aureus. We focus our study on two of these risk factors (HIV-infection and diabetes) which may constitute high potential health conditions for emergence of resistant S. aureus strains.
Methods: A Cross sectional study was conducted during 19 months in five laboratories in the northern Cameroon. Collection of clinical samples from nine different types of specimens and first identifications were conducted in the various sites of study. Selected strains were transported in Yaoundé using standard procedure. Identification and drug susceptibility testing was performed using the disk diffusion method. Questionnaires were submitted to all the participants after an approved written and oral consent. HIV and Glycemia test were carried out on each patient in case their status was not known. During the study, 380 strains of Staphylococcus aureus were identified. Antimicrobial test was achieved using 16 different antibiotics.
Results: Result showed that 202/380 (53.2 %) of Staphylococcus aureus were resistant to at least three antibiotics (multiresistant) from three different families. Multiresistant strains displayed high resistance to cotrimoxal (76.7 %) followed by penicillin (66.8 %), tetracyclin (57.4 %) and oxacillin (51.5%). While high rate of sensitivity were obtained for rifampicin (78.7 %), fusidic acid (65.8 %), lincomycin (60.5 %) and minocyclin (58.9 %). Few participants 8.9 % were tested HIV positive and 7.9% were living with diabetes. Strains isolated from participants living with these diseases presented higher rate of resistance to antibiotics.
Conclusion: The rate of multiresistant Staphylococcus aureus are constantly in progress in northern Cameroon, most of the strains originated from community. These strains exhibited high resistance level to cotrimoxazol while displaying high sensitivity to rifampicine. People living with chronic diseases presented high resistance to antibiotic recommended for S. aureus infection treatment.
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