Microbiological Research of Mineral and Mountain Spring Waters in Bulgaria

Main Article Content

Ignat Ignatov

Abstract

In Bulgaria is observed a great variety of spring waters. They are mineral and mountain spring waters. According to their temperature they can be cold (up to 37 °С), warm (from 37°C to 60 °C) and hot (over 60 °C). This is Bulgarian standard for the qualification of waters according to their temperature.

The mountain spring waters are cold with temperature up to 25 °С.

By their chemical composition they fall into three categories – low mineralized (up to 2 g/L), moderately mineralized (2 to 15 g/L) and highly mineralized (15 – 30 g/L). According to their chemical composition the mineral waters are divided into sulphate, sulfide, hydrogen carbonate, chloride and carbonic. With regards to their gas composition they are nitrogen, sea and carbonic waters.

The waters that correspond to the requirements of Decree No. 14 regarding the resort resources, resort localities and resorts, have balneological parameters.

The main objective of the current review is to show springs, which have been examined by microbiological parameters and are in compliance with Ordinance No. 9 / 2001, Official State Gazette, issue 30, and decree No. 178 / 23.07.2004 regarding the quality of water intended for drinking and household purposes, and Decree № 14 regarding the resort resources, resort localities and resorts.

Keywords:
Mineral waters, mountain spring waters, microbiological parameters

Article Details

How to Cite
Ignatov, I. (2020). Microbiological Research of Mineral and Mountain Spring Waters in Bulgaria. Microbiology Research Journal International, 30(10), 79-84. https://doi.org/10.9734/mrji/2020/v30i1030275
Section
Review Article

References

Methods for evaluation of microbiological indicators according to Ordinance No. 9 / 2001, Official State Gazette, issue 30, and decree No. 178 / 23.07.2004 regarding the quality of water intended for drinking and household purposes.

Valcheva N, The microflora of medicinal and spring waters in Haskovo and Stara Zagora region, Dissertation, University of Food Technology. 2014;1-142.

Tumbarski Y, Valcheva N, Denkova Z, Koleva I. Antimicrobial activity against some saprophytic and pathogenic microorganisms of bacillus species strains isolated from natural spring waters in Bulgaria. British Microbiology Research Journal. 2014;4(12):1353-1369.

Velichkova K, Sirakov N, Rusenova, Beev G, Denev S, Valcheva N, Dinev T. In vitro antimicrobial activity on Lemna minuta, Chlorella Vulgaris and Spirulina sp. Extracts. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, 2018;27(8):5736-5741.

Terzieva S, Velichkova K, Grozeva N, Valcheva N, Dinev T. Antimicrobial activity of Amaranthus spp. extracts again some mycotoxigenic fungi. Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science, Agricultural. 2019; 25(3).

Becton, Dickinson and Company, Endo agar; 2006.

McFeters G A, Kippin J S, LeChevallier M W. Injured coliforms in drinking water. Applied and Environmental Microbiology; 1986.

Wilson K, Sheargen J, Antagonism of toxigenic Clostridium difficile by nontoxigenic C. Difficile. The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 1983;147(4):733–736.

Valcheva N, Ignatov I, Mihaylova S. Physiological and molecular-genetic characteristic of bacteria strains, isolated from mountain spring and mineral waters in Plovdiv region, Bulgaria. International Journal of Pathogen Research. 2020; 4(1):44- 55.

Valcheva N, Denkova Z, Nikolova R, Denkova R. Physiological, biochemical, and molecular – genetic characterization of bacterial strains Isolated from sping and healing waters in region of Haskovo. Food, Science Engineering and Technologies, Plovdiv. 2014;LX:940-946.

Valcheva N, Denkova Z, Denkova R. Physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of spring waters in Haskovo. Journal of Food and Packaging Science Technique and Technologies. 2013;14:21-25.

Valcheva N, Denkova Z, Nikolova R, Denkova R. Physiological - biochemical and molecular - genetic characteristics of bacterial strains isolated from spring and healing waters in the Haskovo region, N.T. at UCT. 2013;LX.

Valcheva N, Denkova Z, Denkova R, Nikolova R. Characterization of bacterial strains isolated from a thermal spring in Pavel Banya, Stara Zagora region, N.T. at UCT. 2014;LXI.

Valcheva N, Ignatov I, Dinkov G. Microbiological and physicochemical research of thermal Spring and mountain spring waters in the district of Sliven, Bulgaria. Journal of Advances in Microbiology. 2020;20(2):9-17.

Valcheva N. Physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of thermal healing spring waters in the district of Burgas. European Reviews of Chemistry, 2019;6(2):81-87.

Valcheva N. Physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of thermal healing spring waters in the districts of Varna and Burgas, Black Sea Region, Bulgaria. European Journal of Medicine. 2019:7(2):120-130.

Ignatov I, Valcheva N, Mihaylova S., Dinkov, G, Physicochemical and microbiological results of hyperthermal (hot) mineral water in Rupite, Bulgaria as model system for origin of life, Uttar Pradesh Journal of Zoology. 2020;41(23). in press.

Valcheva N, Ignatov I. Physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of thermal healing spring waters in the district of Varna. Journal of Medicine, Physiology and Biophysics. 2019;59:10-16.

Ignatov I, Valcheva N. Microbiological and physicochemical research of mountain spring waters in vasiliovska mountain, municipality of Teteven, Bulgaria. Chemical Science International Journal. 2020;29(3):16-23.

Ignatov I, Mosin OV, Velikov B, Bauer E, Tyminski G. Longevity factors and mountain water as factor. Research in mountain and fields areas in Bulgaria. Civil and Environmental Research. 2014; 30(4):51-60.

Ignatov I, Mosin OV, Velikov B, Bauer E, Tyminski G. Research of longevity factors and mountain water as a factor in Teteven municipality, Bulgaria. Journal of Medicine, Physiology and Biophysics. 2014;2:37-52.

Ignatov I, Mosin OV, Velikov B, Bauer E, Tyminski G. Research of longevity factors and mountain water as a factor in Teteven, Yablanitsa and Ugarchin municipalities, Lovech Region, Bulgaria. Journal of Health, Medicine and Nursing. 2014;4:21-36.

Ignatov I, Mosin OV, Velikov B, Bauer E, Tyminski G. Mountain water as main longevity factor in research of phenomenon of longevity in mountain areas in Bulgaria. European Journal of Molecular Biotechnology. 2014;4(2):52-71.

Ignatov I, Mosin OV, Velikov B. Mountain water as a factor of human longevity. Local extremum at 8.95 µm in spectrum of water as indicator for health and longevity. Journal of Medicine, Physiology and Biophysics. 2015;9:51-81.

Ignatov I, Mosin OV. Methods for research of mountain and melt water as factor of longevity. Chemical composition, NES and DNES methods for spectral analysis. Effects of Calcium, Magnesium, Zinc and Manganese, Advances in Physics Theories and Applications. 2015;44:48-64.

Ignatov I, Mosin OV. Effects of Calcium, Magnesium, Zinc and Manganese in Water on Biophysical and Biochemical Processes in the Human Body, Journal of Medicine, Physiology and Biophysics. 2016;25:45-63.

Ignatov I, Mosin OV. Studying the composition and properties of mountain and melt water of Bulgaria and Russia as factors of longevity. Effect of Calcium, Magnesium, Zinc and Manganese in water in organism. European Journal of Molecular Biotechnology. 2016;11(1):13-28.

Ignatov I, Mosin OV, Bauer E. Effects of Zinc and Manganese in mountain and glacier water for predominant antioxidant effects. Journal of Medicine Physiology and Biophysics. 2016;27:11-29.

Ignatov I, Pesheva Y. Studying of the factors of longevity in Smolyan municipality, Rhodope mountains, Bulgaria as Area of Oxidant/Antioxidant Balance. 2018;8(16):29-42.

Ignatov I. Research of the factors of health and longevity for the population in Bulgaria. Bulgarian Journal of Public Health. 2018;10(3):52-6.