Distribution of COVID-19 by Sex and Age Groups and Its Association with Travel and Contact History: An Overview of Early Epidemic

Main Article Content

Hamzullah Khan
Zahid Khan
Saadullah Afridi
Fazli Bari

Abstract

Objectives: To determine the frequency of COVID-19 and its association with age, gender, travel and exposure.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in COVID-19 clinic, Qazi Hussain Ahmed Medical Complex, Nowshera, from February 2020 to April 2020. A total of 260 suspects were included under strict criteria. Patients received in general OPD and emergencies were excluded. Data was entered in a format in SPSS version 25 for analysis and reporting. Descriptive, inferential and correlation statistics were used.

Results: Out of a total 260 of suspects/patients, 66(25.4%) females and 194(74.6%) were males. The nasopharyngeal swabs of 63(24.23%) cases were sent for viral detection selected for PCR testing on the bases of a scoring system. Out of 63 cases 18(6.92%) were COVID-19 positive, 32(12.30%) negative and results of 12(4.61%) were still awaited. The estimated relative risk in male gender was rr=1.08, 95%CI, 0.77-1.55 and in age group>60 years was rr=2.27, 95%CI, 1.35-5.14. There was a positive statistically significant correlation of disease in patients with contact and travel history (p=0.05, rho=0.12; p=0.001, rho=0.34), respectively.

Conclusion: The results suggest that the age>50 years has higher susceptibility for COVID-19. Similarly, infectivity with 2019-nCoV has a statistically significant correlation with travel history, contact history and age. 

Keywords:
COVID-19, pandemic, epidemiology, etiological factor.

Article Details

How to Cite
Khan, H., Khan, Z., Afridi, S., & Bari, F. (2020). Distribution of COVID-19 by Sex and Age Groups and Its Association with Travel and Contact History: An Overview of Early Epidemic. Microbiology Research Journal International, 30(8), 59-66. https://doi.org/10.9734/mrji/2020/v30i830251
Section
Original Research Article

References

Ahn DG, Shin HJ, Kim MH, Lee S, im HS, Myoung J, et al. Current status of epidemiology, diagnosis, therapeutics, and vaccines for novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2020;30:313-24. DOI: 10.4014/jmb.2003.03011

Chen N, Zhou M, Dong X, Qu J, Gong F, Han Y, et al. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: A descriptive study. Lancet. 2020;3 95:507-13.

Munster VJ, Koopmans M, van Doremalen N, van Riel D, de Wit E. A novel coronavirus emerging in china - key questions for impact assessment. N Engl J Med. 2020;382:692-4.

World Health Organization. 2019-nCoV outbreak is an emergency of international concern; 2020.

Available:http://www.euro.who.int/en/healt-topics/emergencies/pages/news/news/2020/01/2019-ncov-outbreak-is-an-emergency-of-international-concern (Access Feb 16, 2020)

Coronavirus in Pakistan - Confirmed Cases. Available:www.covid.gov.pk/ Retrieved 6 April 2020

LIVE: PM Imran urges Pakistanis to be steadfast in their faith amid COVID-19 crisis. The Express Tribune; 2020. Retrieved 4 April 2020

Number of cases expected to rise to 50,000 by April 25, govt tells Supreme Court. Available:www.geo.tv Retrieved 4 April 2020

Cascella M, Rajnik M, Cuomo A, et al. Features, Evaluation and Treatment Coronavirus (COVID-19) [Updated 2020 Mar 20]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): Stat Pearls. Available:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK554776/ Publishing; 2020 Jan

National Health Commission of People’s Republic of China. Notice on printing and distributing the work plan for prevention and control of pneumonia caused by novel coronavirus infection in the near future; 2020. Available:http://www.nhc.gov.cn/tigs/s7848/202001/808bbf75e5ce415aa19f74c78ddc653f.shtml Accessed 31 Jan 2020

Ajilore K, Atakiti I, Onyenankey K. College students' knowledge, attitudes and adherence to public service announcements on Ebola in Nigeria: Suggestions for improving future Ebola prevention education programmes. Health Educ J. 2017;76:648-60

Raosoft® sample size calculator [internet]. Seattle, WA, USA: Raosoft Inc.; 2004. Available:http://www.raosoft.com/samplesize.html [Accessed 2019 Jan 13].

Guidelines clinical management guidelines for COVID-19. Infections Ministry of National health services regulation and coordination, Islamabad, Pakistan; April 2, 2020. Available:https://covid.gov.pk/guidelines/pdf/20200402%20Clinical%20Management%20Guidelines%20for%20COVID-19%20infections_1201.pdf

Jernigan DB, CDC COVID-19 Response Team. Update: Public health response to the Coronavirus disease 2019 Outbreak - United States, February 24, 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020;69: 216–9.

Zhou F, Yu T, Du R, Fan G, Liu Y, Liu Z, et al. Clinical course and risk factors for mortality of adult in patients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: A retrospective cohort study. Lancet. 2020;395:2054-62 DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30566-3

Tian S, Hu N, Lou J, Chen K, Kang X, Xiang Z, et al. Characteristics of COVID-19 infection in Beijing. J Infect. 2020;80:401–6.

Zhou X, Li Y, Li T, Zahang W. Follow-up of the asymptomatic patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2020;26:957-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.cmi.2020.03.024

Quilty BJ, Clifford S, Flasche S, Eggo RM. Effectiveness of airport screening at detecting travellers infected with novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). Euro Surveill. 2020; 25:2000080. DOI:10.2807/1560-7917.es.2020.25.5.2000080

Mizumoto K, Kagaya K, Zarebski A, Chowell G. Estimating the asymptomatic proportion of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases on board the Diamond Princess cruise ship, Yokohama, Japan, 2020. Euro Surveill. 2020;25: 2000180. DOI:10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.10.2000180

Luo L, Liu D, Liao XL, Wu XB, Jing QL, Dean NE, et al. Modes of contact and risk of transmission in COVID-19 among close contacts. Med Rxiv. 2020;03.24.20042606. Available:https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.03.24.20042606

Qiu H, Wu J, Hong L, Luo Y, Song Q et al. Clinical and epidemiological features of 36 children with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID). Lancet; 2020. Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30198-5

Anzai A, Kobayashi T, Linton NM, Kinoshita R, Hayashi K, Suzukiet A,et al. Assessing the Impact of Reduced Travel on Exportation Dynamics of Novel Coronavirus Infection (COVID-19). J Clin Med. 2020;9:601. DOI: 10.3390/jcm9020601

Yang Y, Lu Q, Liu M, Wang Y, Zhang A, Jalali N, et al. Epidemiological and clinical features of the 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak in China. MedRxiv; 2020. 20021675. Available:https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.02.10.20021675

CDC COVID-19 Response Team. Severe Outcomes among Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) - United States, February 12-March 16, 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020;69:343-6. DOI: 10.15585/mmwr.mm6912e2

Porcheddu R, Serra C, Kelvin D, Kelvin N, Rubino S. Similarity in case fatality rates (CFR) of COVID-19/SARS-COV-2 in Italy and China. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2020; 14:125-8. DOI: 10.3855/jidc.12600