Dermatophytes and Other Keratinophiic Fungi in Soils of Anguilla, British West Indies (BWI)

Main Article Content

Harish C. Giugnani
Kirtika Venketesan

Abstract

Aims: Keratinophilic fungi include dermatophytes and a variety of other fungi. Information on their occurrence in several Caribbean countries is scarce. This study investigates occurrence of dermatophytes and other keratinophiic fungi in soils of Anguilla, British West Indies (BWI) and emphasizes its public health significance.

Study design: Place and Duration of Study: The study was done in the Department of Microbiology, Saint James School of Medicine, Anguilla (BWI). One hundred and ten samples of soils from habitats in several localities in Anguilla were examined.

Methodology: The samples were processed by Vanbreuseghem’s hair-bait technique. Bits of fungal growth on hair-bates were cultured on Mycobiotic agar to get pure cultures. Identification of the isolates was accomplished by a detailed study of colonial characters and microscopical features of the isolates.

Results: Eighty-five isolates of keratinophilic fungi were recovered. The identified species included two geophilic dermatophytes, Micrsporum fulvum and M. gypseum and two species of Chrysosporium, namely Chrysosporium keratinophilum and C. indicum, M. fulvum was the predominant species being recovered from 35 (31.8%) of the soil samples followed by C. keratinophilum being isolated from 15.5% of the samples. M. gypseum was present in 8 (7.3%) of the samples. The prevalence of other species was as follows: C. indicum (13.6%), Chrysosporium spp. (4.5%) and Sepedonium spp. (4.5%).

Conclusion: The preponderance occurrence of M. fulvum over M. gypseum and that of C. keratinophilum over C. indicum in soils of Anguilla is a remarkable observation. The farmers, other workers, school children who come in contact with soil are likely to be infected with a dermatophytes and also the visitors to the beaches and the local population nearby.

Keywords:
Anguilla, soils, Microsporum fulvum, Microsporum gypseum, Chrysosporium keratinophilum

Article Details

How to Cite
Giugnani, H. C., & Venketesan, K. (2020). Dermatophytes and Other Keratinophiic Fungi in Soils of Anguilla, British West Indies (BWI). Microbiology Research Journal International, 30(7), 1-6. https://doi.org/10.9734/mrji/2020/v30i730233
Section
Original Research Article

References

Ajello L. Natural history of the dermatophytes and related fungi. Mycopathologia et Mycologia Applicata. 1974;53(1):93–110.

Gugnani HC. Kushwaha RKS, Guarro J. Nondermatophytic filamentous keratinophilic fungi and their role in human infections in biology of dermatophytes and other keratinophilic fungi. (eds) Revista Iberoamericana de Micologia Apartado, Bilbao, Pafs Vasco, Spain; 2000.

Padhye AA, Summerbell RC. Dermatophytes. In Microbiology and Microbial Infections. Medical Mycology. (Eds.: Merz, W.G. and Hay, J.) Topley & Wilsons. London. Arnold. 2010;6:220- 239.

Gugnani HC, Shrivastav JB, Gupta NP. Occurrence of Athroderma simii in soil and hair of small mammals. Sabouraudia. 1967;6(1):77-80.

Gugnani HC, Wattal BL, Sandhu RS. Dermatophytes and other ketratinophilic fungi recovered from small mammals in India. Mykosen. 1975;18(12):529-536.

Sharma R, Wolfgang PB, Rajak RC, Yvonne G. Molecular detection of Microsporum persicolor in soil suggesting widespread dispersal in central India. Med Mycol. 2008;46(1):67-73.

Ajello L, Varsavsky E, Ginther OJ, Bubash G. The natural history of Microsporum nanum. Mycologia. 1964;56:873-884.

Available:https.//doi.org/10.1080.00275514.12018178

Gugnani HC, Paliwal-Joshi A, Rahman H, Padhye, AA, Singh, TSK, Das, TK. et al. Occurrence of pathogenic fungi in soil of burrows of rats and of other sites in bamboo plantations in India and Nepal. Mycoses. 2007;50(6):507-511.

Sethi KK, Randhawa HS, Kurup VP, Ajello L. Isolation of Microsporum vanbreuseghemii from Soil in India. Sabouraudia. 1968;6(1):81–82.

Al-Doory Y. The occurrence of keratinophilic fungi in Texas soil. Mycopathologia. 1966;33(2):105-111.

Otcenasek M, Hubalek Z, Devorak J, Kunert J. Chrysosporium indicum-like and Chrysosporium evoluceanui from the soil of Cuba. Mykosen. 1968;11(1):19-24.

De Hoog GS, Guarro J, Gene J, Figueras MJ. Atlas of clinical fungi. 2nd ed. Utrecht: Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures; 2000.

Vanbreuseghem R. Technique biologique pour I' isolement des dermatophytes du sol. Ann. Soc Beige Med Trop. 1952;32(2): 173-178.

Kidd S, Halidday C, Alexiou, Ellis D. Descriptions of medical fungi, national mycology reference center sa pathoogy, adelade, South Australia, Clinical Mycology Reference Laboratory. Westmead Hospital, Westmead, New South Wales; 2017.

Van Oorschot CA. A revision of Chrysosporium and allied genera. Baarn: Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures (CBS studies in mycology. 2019;80:1- 89.

Volz PA. A preliminary study of the keratinophilic fungi from Abaco Island, The Bahamas. Mycopathologia. 1971;43(3): 3-4.

Gugnani HC, Soni S, Gupta B, Gaddam S. Prevalence of keratinophilic fungi in soils of St. Kitts and Nevis. J Infect Develop Ctries. 2012;6(4):347351.

Gugnani HC, Dortalina R, Rosalia J, Celestijn S, Davidson B. Prevalence of keratinophilic fungi in soils of Bonaire (Dutch Caribbean), West Indies. Kawaka. 2013;41(1):1-5.

Gugnani HC, Soni S, Wright K. A preliminary study on the occurrence of keratinophilic fungi of soils of Jaimaica Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2014;56(3):231-234.

Giudice MC, Reis-Menezes A, Rittner MG José A, Mota AJ, Gambale W. Isolation of Microsporum gypseum in soil samples from different geographical regions of Brazil, evaluation of the extracellular proteolytic enzymes activities (keratinase and elastase) and molecular sequencing of selected strains. Braz J Microbiol. 2012; 43(3):895-902.

Paedo-Castello V, Trespalacllos F. Superficial and deep mycoses in Cuba: A report based on 1,174 cases. South Med Journal. 1959;52(1):7-15.

Raccurt CP, Dorsainvil D, Boncy M, Boncy J, Auguste G. The emergence of Trichophyton tonsurans in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Med Mycol. 2009;47(2):197-200.

Moore MK, Suite M. Tinea capitis in Trinidad. J Trop Med Hyg. 1993;96:346-348.

Gugnani HC. Extra-human sources of pathogenic fungi, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Delhi, India; 1970.

Deshmukh SK. Incidence of keratinophilic fungi from selected soils of Kerala state (India). Mycopathologia 2003;156:177-181.

Available:https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1023390713730

Vidyasagar GM, Hosmani N, Shivkumar D. Keratinophilic fungi isolated from hospital dust and soils of public places at Gulbarga, India. Mycopathologia. 2005; 159(1):13 -21.

Spiewak R. Zoophiic and geophilic fungi as cause of skin disease in farmers. Ann Agric Environ Med. 1998;5(2):97–102