Prevalence and Histopathological Effects of Fascioliasis in Cattle Slaughtered in Ikot Eneobong Abattoir, Calabar, Nigeria

Main Article Content

Usang Anok Ukam
Imalele Edema Enogiomwan
Effanga Emmanuel Offiong
Osondu-Anyanwu Chinyere

Abstract

Aims: Studies were carried out to determine the prevalence, intensity, economic loss and histopathological effects of fascioliasis in cattle slaughtered in Ikot Eneobong abattoir, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria.

Study Design: The study involved Post-Mortem examination of 384 liver samples from slaughtered cattle.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Zoology and Environmental Biology, University of Calabar, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria, between April – July, 2015.

Methodology: A total of384 liver samples were examined for individuals of Fasciola gigantica by making length-wise incision on the ventral side of the liver. Recovered flukes were counted and grouped into different levels of intensity. Infected livers recovered were subjected to histopathological analysis using haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining technique. The economic loss due to the infection was determined based on the current market price per kg weight of cattle liver.

Results: Out of the 384 livers examined, 64 (16.67%) were found positive for fascioliasis. The month of July had the highest prevalence of infected livers (25.64%) while the month of April which had the lowest prevalence of infected livers (11.02%) (P=.05). Out of the 64 diseased livers, 58 (90.6%) had light worm load, 5 (7.8%) had moderate worm load and 1 (1.6%) had heavy worm load with numbers significantly higher in July compared with April, May and June (P=.05). In the four months study period, 320kg of livers from 64 cattle valued at ₦256,000 were lost due to infection. Histological examination of infected livers revealed necrosis, fibrosis, degenerated hepatocytes, proliferation of the bile ductules and marked infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells.

Conclusion: This study has established the prevalence, economic loss and histopathological consequences of fascioliasis in Ikot Eneobong abattoir. As such it is important that the routine examination of slaughtered ruminants be conducted prior to their presentation for public consumption.

Keywords:
Fascioliasis, economic loss, histopathology, liver, cattle

Article Details

How to Cite
Ukam, U. A., Enogiomwan, I. E., Offiong, E. E., & Chinyere, O.-A. (2020). Prevalence and Histopathological Effects of Fascioliasis in Cattle Slaughtered in Ikot Eneobong Abattoir, Calabar, Nigeria. Microbiology Research Journal International, 30(5), 27-35. https://doi.org/10.9734/mrji/2020/v30i530218
Section
Original Research Article

References

Odigie EB, Odigie JO. Fascioliasis in Cattle: A survey of abattoirs in Egor, Ikpoba-Okha and Oredo Local Government Areas of Edo State using histochemical techniques. Intl J Basic ApplInno Research. 2013;(1):1-9.

Okoli IC, Agoh EC, Okoli GC, Idemili GC, Umesiobi DO. Bovine and caprine fascioliasis in Enugu State, Nigeria: Retrospective analysis of abattoir records (1993-1997) and six months prevalence study. Bull Anim Health Prod Afr. 2000;48: 7-11.

Hillyer GV. Fasciola antigens as vaccines against fascioliasis and schistosomiasis. J Helminthol. 2005;79(3):241-247.

Eze NC, Briggs AA. Prevalence of fascioliasis and histopathology of the liver in Cattle slaughtered in Port Harcourt abattoir, Rivers State Nigeria. World News Nat Sci. 2018;16:105-106.

Chick BF, Geering WA, Roe RT, Chapman L. Economic significance of Fasciola hepatica infestation of beef cattle – A definition study based on field trial and grazier questionnaire. 2nd International Symposium. Vet Epidemiol Economic Proceedings. 1980;377-382.

Ibironke AA. A retrospective study of liver fluke disease in Cattle based on abattoir data in Agege, Lagos, Nigeria. Afr J Food Agric Nutrition Dev. 2010;10:2.

Njoku-Tony RF. Bovine fascioliasis among slaughtered Cattle in selected abattoirs in Imo State, Nigeria. World Rural Observ. 2011;3(1):59-63.

Tolosa T, Tigre W. The prevalence and economic significance of bovine fasciolosis at Jimma Abattoir, Ethiopia. Int J Vet Med. 2006;3(2):1-7.

Petros A, Kebede A, Wolde A. Prevalence and economic significance of bovine fasciolosis in Nekemte Municipal abattoir. J Vet Med Animal Health. 2013;5(8):202-205.

Ali TS, Zarichehr V, Reza TM, Amroallah B, Hossin T, Amir M, et al. Prevalence of liver flukes infections in slaughtered animals in Kashan Isfahan province, central Iran. IIOAB J. 2011;2(5):14-18.

Chen JX, Chen MX, Xu XN, Jiav JM. An outbreak of human Fasciola gigantica in South West China. PLoS One. 2013;8(8): 9.

Danbirni S, Ziyauhaq H, Allam L, Okayeto SO, Sackey AKB. Prevalence of liver condemnation due to fascioliasis in slaughtered cattle and its financial losses at Kano Old abattoir. Nig J Vet Adv. 2015; 5(6):1004-1009.

Joan N, Stephen MJ, Bashir M, Kiguli J, Orikiriza P, Bazira J, et al. Prevalence and economic impact of bovine fasciolosis at Kampala City abattoir, Central Uganda. Brit Microbiol Res J. 2015;7(3):109-117.

National Population Commission. Nigeria population census Report. 2006;62–65.

Soulsby EJ. Helminths, arthropods and protozoa of domesticated animals. Bailiere, Tinda and Cassel, London. 1982;300.

Usip LP, Ibanga ES, Edoho HJ, Amadi EC, Utah E. Prevalence of fascioliasis and the economic loss of condemned liver due to Fasciola infection in Cattle slaughtered at three abattoirs in Eket Urban, Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria. Global Adv Res J Food Sci Tech. 2014;3(2):54-75.

Bancroft JD, Marilyn G. Theory and practice of histological techniques. 5th Edition. London Press. 2002;256.

Akpabio U. Incidence of bovine fasciolosis and its economic implications at Trans Amadi abattoir, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Acta Parasitol Globalis. 2014;5(3):206-209.

Ogunrinade A, Ogunrinade BI. Economic importance of bovine fasciolosis in Nigeria. Trop Anim Health. 1980;12:155-160.

Available:https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02242647

Abraham JT, Jude IB. Fascioliasis in Cattle and Goat slaughtered at Calabar abattoirs. J Bio Agric Health Care. 2014;4(18):34-40.

Ayelign M, Alemneh T. Study on prevalence and economic importance of bovine fasciolosis in three districts of North-East Amhara Region, Ethiopia. J. Infect Non Infect Dis. 2017;3:024.

Ekwunife CA, Eneanya CI. Fasciola gigantica in Onitsha and environs. Animal Res Intl. 2006;3(2):448-450.

Ozung PO, Owai PU, Oni KO. An assessment of the prevalence of fascioliasis of ruminants in Ikom abattoir of Cross River State, Nigeria. Continental J Vet Sci. 2011;5(1):1-5.

Yahaya A, Tyay YB. A survey of gastrointestinal parasitic helminths of bovine slaughtered in abattoir, Wudil Local Government Area, Kano State, Nigeria. Greener J Biological Sci. 2014;4(4):128-134.

Ngele KK, Ibe E. Prevalence of fasciolopsis in cattle slaughtered at Eke Market abattoir, Afikpo, Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Anim Res Int. 2014;11(2):1958-1963.

Jaja IF, Mushonga B, Green E, Muchenje, V. Financial loss estimation of bovine fasciolosis in slaughtered cattle in South Africa. Parasite Epidemiol Control. 2017; 2(4):27-34.

Abebe W, Keffale M, Adugna S. Prevalence of bovine fasciolosis and its economic significance in Bonga Abattoir, Kafa Zone, Southwestern Ethiopia. Acta Parasitol Globalis. 2016;7(3):126-131.

DOI: 10.5829/idosi.apg.2016.126.131

Ejeh EF, Paul BT, Lawan FA, Lawal JR, Ejeh SA, Hambali IU. Seasonal prevalence of bovine fascioliasis and its direct economic loss due to liver condemnation at Makurdi abattoirs, North Central Nigeria. Sokoto J Vet Sci. 2015;13(2):42-48.

Salmo NAM, Hassan SMA, Saeed AK. Histopathological study of chronic liver fascioliasis of cattle in Sulaimani abattoir. Al-Qadisiya J Vet Med Sci. 2014;13(2):71-80.

Okoye IC, Egbu FMI, Ubechukwu PO, Obiezue NR. Liver histopathology in bovine fascioliasis. Afri J Biotechnology. 2015;14(33):2576-2582.

Trivilin LO, Sousa DR, Nunes LC, Rocha NS, Martins IVF. Histopathology aspects and fibrosis evaluation of bovine naturally infected livers by Fasciola hepatica. Archives of Vet Sci. 2014;19(1):61-69.

Haroun EM, Gadir HA, Gameel AA. Studies on naturally occurring ovine fascioliasis in the Sudan. J Helminthol. 1986;60(1):47-53.