Baseline Assessment of Risk Factors of Presumptive Tuberculosis among under Five Children Living with an Index Client under Treatment in Mbale District, Eastern Uganda

Main Article Content

Rosemary Tumusiime
Charles Mukasa
Agatha K Kisakya-Maria
Irene Mildred Neumbe
Jerome Odyeny
Bernard Maube
Yahaya Gavamukulya
Rebecca Nekaka

Abstract

Background and Aims: Children in contact with adults having pulmonary Tuberculosis (TB) are vulnerable to TB infection and hence contact tracing and screening is important for early detection of infection. However, there are few contacts traced and the prevalence and risk factors for transmission are not well studied. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of infection and risk factors associated with TB transmission among under five children in household contact with adult pulmonary TB patients.

Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out in three health facilities with a high TB burden in Mbale District, Eastern Uganda involving all under five household contacts of adults with pulmonary tuberculosis recorded in the TB register from October 2018 to March 2019 and still on treatment. Structured questionnaires were administered to the index clients to obtain their demographic and clinical data about TB, HIV as well as information on the children. Children were screened using the intensive case finding forms to identify presumptive cases.

Results: The total number of index TB Clients line listed were 70. Number of clients traced was 38, 21 (%) of whom had children under five years and a total of 33 children were identified. The number of presumptive cases was 9/33 (27.27%). 77.8% of the presumptive cases were living in poorly ventilated houses.

Conclusion: The study identified children with presumptive TB and various risk factors for TB transmission. Intensive contact tracing can therefore help reduce TB transmission within the communities. It is recommended to undertake studies aiming at improving contact tracing and strategies to eliminate the risk factors to TB transmission.

Keywords:
Presumptive TB, under five children, Index clients, contact tracing, Mbale district.

Article Details

How to Cite
Tumusiime, R., Mukasa, C., Kisakya-Maria, A. K., Neumbe, I. M., Odyeny, J., Maube, B., Gavamukulya, Y., & Nekaka, R. (2020). Baseline Assessment of Risk Factors of Presumptive Tuberculosis among under Five Children Living with an Index Client under Treatment in Mbale District, Eastern Uganda. Microbiology Research Journal International, 30(5), 1-8. https://doi.org/10.9734/mrji/2020/v30i530214
Section
Original Research Article

References

World Health Organization. Global Tuberculosis Report 2018; 2018.

World Health Organization. Guidance for national tuberculosis programmes on the management of tuberculosis in children; 2006.

Triasih R, Rutherford M, Lestari T, Utarini A, Robertson CF, Graham SM. Contact Investigation of Children Exposed to Tuberculosis in South East Asia : A Systematic Review;2012.

World Health Organization. Recommendations for investigating contacts of persons with infectious tuberculosis in low- and middle-income countries. World Heal Organ. 2012;28–41.

Hanrahan CF, Nonyane BAS, Mmolawa L, West NS, Siwelana T, Lebina L, et al. Contact tracing versus facility-based screening for active TB case finding in rural South Africa: A pragmatic cluster-randomized trial (Kharitode TB). PLoS Med. 2019;16(4):e1002796.

Beyanga M, Kidenya BR, Gerwing-Adima L, Ochodo E, Mshana SE, Kasang C. Investigation of household contacts of pulmonary tuberculosis patients increases case detection in Mwanza City, Tanzania. BMC Infect Dis. 2018;18(1):1–8.

Ministry of Health Uganda. National Tuberculosis and leprosy division july 2017 – JUNE 2018 Report. Vol. 48, Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy; 2018.

Ministry of health uganda. national Tuberculosis and leprosy Revised National Strategic Plan 2015 / 16 - 2019 / 20; 2017.

World Health Organization (WHO). Roadmap for childhood tuberculosis, towards zero deaths. 2013;44.

Uganda Bureau of Statistics. National Population and Housing Census; 2014.

Ministry of Health U. Uganda TB Guidelines Special Settings. 2019;64.

Granich R. WHO Guidelines for IPT and ICF.

World Health Organization. WHO guidelines on tuberculosis infection prevention and control, 2019 update. Online annexes. Who; 2019.

Birungi FM, Graham S, Uwimana J, van Wyk B. Assessment of the isoniazid preventive therapy uptake and associated characteristics: A Cross-Sectional Study. Tuberc Res Treat. 2018;1–9.

UNICEF. Uganda Country Profile: Maternal, Newborn & Child Survival. Geneva; 2010.

Tadesse Y, Gebre N, Daba S, Gashu Z, Habte D. Uptake of isoniazid preventive therapy among under-five children : TB Contact Investigation as an Entry Point. 2016;1–11.

Hoang TTT, Nguyen VN, Dinh NS, Thwaites G, Nguyen TA, van Doorn HR, et al. Active contact tracing beyond the household in multidrug resistant tuberculosis in Vietnam: a cohort study. BMC Public Health. 2019;19(1):1–8.

Otero L, Shah L, Verdonck K, Battaglioli T, Brewer T, Gotuzzo E, et al. A prospective longitudinal study of tuberculosis among household contacts of smear-positive tuberculosis cases in Lima, Peru. BMC Infect Dis. 2016;16(1):1–8.

Lygizos M, Shenoi S V, Brooks RP, Bhushan A, Brust JCM, Zelterman D, et al. Natural ventilation reduces high TB transmission risk in traditional homes in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. 2013;15 –9.

Urrego J, Ko AI, Santos S, Sanchez D, Paião G, Viebrantz R, et al. The impact of ventilation and early diagnosis on tuberculosis transmission in Brazilian Prisons. 2015;93(4):739–46.

Ewa AU, Essiet DF, John S, Monu U. Tuberculosis in children living amongst adults with tuberculosis at the Tuberculosis and leprosy referral hospital, Eku, Nigeria. 2015;80–9.