In vitro Antibacterial and Antitubercular Activities of Leaf Extracts of Senna occidentalis
Microbiology Research Journal International,
Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the antibacterial and antitubercular activities of ethylacetate and ethanol leaf extracts of Senna occidentalis.
Study Design: Fresh leaves of Senna occidentalis collected from Suleja, Niger state were used for this study against some medically important micro-organisms viz; Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella paratyphi, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium smegmatis.
Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in Abuja, Nigeria at the Department of Microbiology and Biotechnology, National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development [NIPRD], from February 2019 to April 2019.
Methodology: Senna occidentalis leaves were extracted successively with ethyl-acetate and ethanol. The obtained extracts were tested in vitro for antibacterial activity by agar well diffusion method, while anti-tubercular screening was carried out by broth micro-dilution method. A fixed-dose concentration of chloramphenicol was used as a control drug against the bacterial isolates while isoniazid was used as control drug against the mycobacterium isolates.
Results: The in vitro antibacterial screening showed that the crude extracts exhibited varying activity against the different microbes with highest zone of inhibition at 12 mm, and anti-tubercular activity with MICs ranging from 97.6-390.6 μg/mL. Among these extracts, ethyl-acetate extract showed significant antibacterial activity against most of the test micro-organisms. The most susceptible micro-organism was P. aeruginosa (12mm zone in ethyl-acetate at 80 mg/mL) followed by B. subtilis (10 mm zone in ethyl-acetate extract at 80 mg/mL) and E. coli (9 mm zone in ethyl-acetate extract at 80 mg/mL). The ethanol extract was the most effective in inhibiting the growth of M. smegmatis and M. bovis with MICs of 97.6 μg/mL and 195.3 μg/mL.
Conclusion: The activities observed could be attributed to the presence of some active metabolites contained in the extracts which could be useful in drug development for therapeutic purposes.
- Senna occidentalis
- anti-bacterial activity
- anti-tubercular activity
How to Cite
Jasmer RM, Nahid P, Hopewell PC. Clinical practice: latent tuberculosis infection, N. Engl. J. Med. 2002;347:1860–1866.
World Health Organization (WHO). Multidrug and extensively drug resistant TB (M/XDR-TB): Global report on surveillance and response. 2010;1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland.
Maiga M, Abaza A, Bishai WR. Current tuberculosis diagnostic tools & role of urease breath test. Indian J. Med. Res. 2012;135:731–736.
World Health Organization (WHO). Global tuberculosis report 2017.
World Health Organization (WHO). Global tuberculosis control - Surveillance, planning and financing. Geneva, Switzerland. 2007;376. WHO/HTM/ TB/2007.
Rivoire N, Ravololonandriana P, Rasolonavalona T, Martin A, Portaels F, Ramarokoto H. Evaluation of the resazurin assay for the detection of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Madagascar. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2007; 11:683–688.
Aleme GA, Gebeyehu A. Clinical improvement and drug-adverse effects among patients taking anti-tuberculosis Drugs. Ethiopian J Health Biomed Sci. 2010;2:103–110.
Hannan A, Ullah MI, Usman M, Hussain S, Absar M, Javed K. Antimycobacterial activity of Garlic (Allium sativum) against Multi-drug resistant and non -Multi-drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2011;24:81–85.
Higuchi CT, Sannomiya M, Pavan FR, Leite SRA, Sato DN, Franzblau SG. Byrsonima fagifolia Niedenzu Apolar Compounds with Antitubercular Activity. Evid-Based Complement and Altern Med. 2008;20(11):1–5.
Gupta R, Thakur B, Singh P, Singh HB, Sharma VD, Katoch VM. Anti-tuberculosis activity of Selected Medicinal Plants against Multi-drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates. Indian J Med Res. 2010;131:809–813.
Bako SP, Bakfur MJ, John I, Bala EI. Ethnomedicinal and phytochemical profile of some savanna plant species in Nigeria. Int J Bot. 2005;1(2):147–50.
Edoga HO, Okwu DE, Mbaebie BO. Phytochemicals constituents of some Nigerian medicinal plants. African Journal Biotechnology. 2005;4(7):685–688.
Poongothai A, Sreena KP, Sreejith K, Uthiral Ingam M, Annapoorani S. Preliminary phytochemical screening of Ficus racemesa Linn. Bark. Int. J. Pharma. Bio. Sci. 2011;2(2):1388-93.
Musa DD, Aliero AA, Bashir KA. Preliminary allelopathic activity of aqueous leaf extract of Senna occidentalis on the Germination and early seedling growth of Cowpea int. Journal of Current Sciences and research. 2017;1(1):23-25.
Vijay VS, Jainendra J, Arun KM. Pharmacological and phytochemical profile of Cassia occidentalis L: A review. Journal of Drug Delivery & Therapeutics. 2016; 6(5):91-96.
Lar J, Gupta PC. Anthraquinone glycosides from the seeds of Cassia occidentalis Linn. Experientia. 1973;29:142–3.
Barbosa-Ferreira M, Dagli ML, Maiorka PC, Górniak SL. Sub acute intoxication by Senna occidentalis seeds in rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 2005;43:497–503.
Arya V, Yadav S, Kumar S, Yadav JP. Antimicrobial activities of Cassia occidentalis l. (leaf) against various human pathogenic microbes. Life Sciences and Medicine Research. 2010; 9:1-11.
Yadav JP, Vedpriya A, Sanjay Y, Manju P, Sandeep K, Seema D. Cassia occidentalis L.: A review on its ethnobotany, phytochemical and pharmacological profile. Fitoterapia. 2010;81(4):223-230.
Silva MG, Aragao TP, Vasconcelos CF, Ferreira PA, Andrade BA, Costa IM, Costa-silva JH, Wanderley AG, Lafayette SS. Acute and sub-acute toxicity of Cassia occidentalis L. stem and leaf in Wistar rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2011; 136(2):341-346.
Nuhu AA, Aliyu R. Effects of Cassia occidentalis aqueous leaf extract on Biochemical markers of Tissue damage in Rats. Trophical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2008;7(4):1137-1142.
Sadiq IS, Shuaibu M, Bello AB, Tureta SG, Isah A, Izuagie T, Nasiru S, Kamaru MB. Phytochemistry and antimicrobial activities of Cassia occidentalis used for herbal remedies. Journal of Chemical Engineering. 2012;1:38-41.
Egharevba HO, Odigwe AC, Abdullahi MS, Okwute SK, Okogun JI. Phytochemical Analysis and Broad Spectrum Antimicrobial Activity of Cassia occidentalis L. (whole plant). New York Science Journal. 2010;3(10):74-81.
Payne-Jackson A, Alleyne MC. Jamaican Folk Medicines: A Source of Healing. University of West Indies Press. 2004;1–228.
Mariano-Souza DP, Paulino CA, Maiorka PC, Gorniak SL. Administration Senna occidentalis seeds to adult and juvenile rats: Effects on Thymus, Spleen and in Haematological parameters. Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology. 2010;5:46-54.
Mohammed M, Aboki MA, Saidu HM, Victor O, Tawakalitu A, Maikano SA. Phytochemical and Some Antimicrobial Activity of Cassia Occidentalis L. (Caesalpiniaceae). International Journal of Science and Technology. 2012;2:4.
Ibrahim MA, Aliyu AB, Sallau AB, Bashir M, Yunusa I, Umar TS. Senna occidentalis leaf extract possesses antitrypanosomal activity and ameliorates the trypanosome-induced anaemia and organ damage. Pharmacognosy Research. 2010;2(3): 175-180.
Gowrisri M, Sarita K, Vrushabendra SBM, Archana SP, Vishwanath KM. Anti-oxidant and nephroprotective activities of Cassia occidentalis leaf Extract against gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences. 2012;3(3):684-694.
Gwarzo US, Gimba CE, Adeyemo DJ, Paul ED. Neuron Activation Analysis (NAA) of Senna occidentalis Linn. Journal of Natural Sciences Research. 2014;(11):22-28.
Shafeen S, Srinath RT, Arafath S, Nagarjuna S, Padmanabha RY. Evaluation of antianxiety and antidepressant activity of Cassia occidentalis leaves. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research. 2012;5(3):47-50.
Emmanuel S, Rani MS, Sreekanth MR. Antidiabetic activity of Cassia occidentalis Linn in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats: A dose dependent study. International Journal of Pharmacology and Bioscience. 2010;1(4):14-25.
Laxmi V, Singour PK, Chaurasiya PK, Rajak H, Pawar RS, Patil UK. Effect of ethanolic extract of Cassia occidentalis Linn. For the management of alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Pharmacognosy Research. 2010;2(3):132-137.
Onakpa MM, Ajagbonna OP. Antidiabetic Potentials of Cassia occidentalis leaf extract on Alloxan-induced Diabetic albino mice. International Journal of Pharm Tech Research. 2012;4(4):1766-1769.
Yadav JP, Arya V, Yadav S, Panghal M, Kumar S, Dhankhar S. Cassia occidentalis: a review on its ethnobotany, phytochemical and pharmacological process. Fitoterapia. 2009;10:1016.
Woods G, Washington JA. Antimicrobial susceptibility test; dilution and disk diffusion methods. Manual of Clinical Microbiology; 6th Ed. 1995;1327-1332.
Jayaraman S, Manoharan MS, Illanchezian S. In-vitro antimicrobial and antitumor activities of Stevia rebaudiana (Asteraceae) leaf extracts. Tropical J. Pharma. Res. 2008;7(4):1143-1149.
Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Methods for dilution antimicrobial susceptibility tests for bacteria that grow aerobically: Approved standard, 9th ed. 2012;32(2):18-19.
Janaky R, Sivasankari K, Sekar T. Screening of antimicrobial activities of an indigenous herb Cassia occidentalis. Applied Botany. 2011;39:4584-4588.
Musa DD, Bashir KA, Hassan KY. Phytochemical Screening and Antibacterial Activity of Leaves Extract of Senna occidentalis (L.). FUDMA Journal of Science. 2018;2(1):59-65.
Odeja O, Obi G, Ogwuche CE, Elemike EE, Oderinlo Y. Phytochemical screening, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Senna occidentalis (L.) leaves Extract. Clinical Phytoscience. 2015;1-6.
Dharnananda SG. The uses of tannins in Chinese medicine. In Proceedings of Institute for Traditional Medicine Portland, Oregon; 2003.
Okwu DE, Okwu ME. Chemical composition of Spondias mombin Linn plant parts. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture and Environment. 2004;6(2): 140-147.
Trease GE, Evans WC. Pharmacognosy. Thirteenth Edition. Balliere Tindall, London. 1989;882.
Sofowora AE. Medicinal plants and traditional medicines in Africa. 2nd edition. Spectrum Books Limited, Ibadan, Nigeria. 1993;289.
Okwu DE. Phytochemicals, vitamins and mineral contents of two Nigerian medicinal plants. International Journal of Molecular Medicine and Advance Sciences. 2005; 1(4):375-381.
Ronan B, Ademir JSJ, Alaide BO. Plant-derived antimalarial agents: New leads and efficient phytomedicine. Part II. Non- Alkaloid Natural Products – A review. Molecules. 2009;14:3037-3072.
Sadique J, Chandra T, Thenmozhi V, Elango V. Biochemical modes of action of Cassia occidentalis and Cardiospermum halicacabum in inflammation. J Ethnopharmacol. 1987;19(2): 201-212.
Kunle OF, Egharevba HO. Preliminary studies on Vernonia ambigua: Phytochemistry and antimicrobial screening of the whole plant. Ethnobot Leaf. 2009;13:1216-21.
Chukwujekwu JC, Coombes PH, Mulholland DA, van Staden J. Emodin, an antibacterial anthraquinone from the roots of Cassia occidentalis. South African Journal of Botany. 2006;72(2):295-297.
Sheeba M, Emmanuel S, Revathi K, Ignacimuthu S. Wound healing activity of Cassia occidentalis L. in Albino Wistar rats. IJIB. 2009;8(1):1-6.
Yeragamreddy PR, Peraman R, Chilamakuru NB, Routhu H. In vitro antitubercular and antibacterial activities of isolated constituents and column fractions from leaves of Cassia occidentalis, Camellia sinensis and Ananas comosus. Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther. 2013;2(4):116-123.
Chatterrjee TK. Medicinal plants with hepatoprotective properties. Herbal options. Books and Applied Allied (P) Ltd., Calcutta. 2000;143.
Abstract View: 3820 times
PDF Download: 678 times