Evaluation of Candidal Species in Oral Submucous Fibrosis and Oral Lichen Planus: A Microbiological Study

Ashok Vikey *

Department Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology Govt. College of Dentistry, MPMSU, Indore, M.P. India.

Astha Pusame

Department Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology Govt. College of Dentistry, MPMSU, Indore, M.P. India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Background: Candida is opportunistic microorganisms in oral cavity, causes oral candidiasis. The presence of candida and subspecies in oral premalignant lesions may intensify the infection and transform pre malignant lesions into cancer.

Objective: To isolate various types of candida species, among Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) and Oral lichen Planus (OLP) patients.

Methodology: Total 60 individuals included and grouped as; OSMF (n=20) group A, Lichen Planus (n=10); group B and Controls (n=30) group C.

Results: The higher candida carriage revealed in OSMF+ OLP groups (23.3%) as compared to controls (10%). The species level findings showed 13.3% of candida albicans in  OSMF+ OLP and  6.7% in controls, candida krusei 6.7% in OSMF+ OLP and 3.3% in controls and  non candida albicans were 10% in OSMF+ OLP and 6.7% in control group respectively.

Conclusion: This basic understanding of candida species and their association with potentially malignant disorders will help in better interventions, so as to restrict the lesion before it transform in to malignancy.

Keywords: Candida, oral submucous fibrosis, oral lichen planus, oral cancer, infection, hyperplasia


How to Cite

Vikey, A., & Pusame, A. (2024). Evaluation of Candidal Species in Oral Submucous Fibrosis and Oral Lichen Planus: A Microbiological Study. Microbiology Research Journal International, 34(5), 29–37. https://doi.org/10.9734/mrji/2024/v34i51444

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Vila T, Sultan AS, Montelongo-Jauregui D, Jabra-Rizk MA. Oral candidiasis: A disease of opportunity. J Fungi (Basel). 2020;6(1):15. DOI: 10.3390/jof6010015.

More C, Peter R, Nishma G, Chen Y, Rao N. Association of Candida species with Oral Submucous Fibrosis and Oral Leukoplakia: A Case Control study. Ann Clin Lab Res. 2018;6(3). DOI: 10.21767/2386-5180.100248.

Mohd Bakri M, Mohd Hussaini H, Rachel Holmes A, David Cannon R, Mary Rich A. Revisiting the association between candidal infection and carcinoma, particularly oral squamous cell carcinoma. J Oral Microbiol. 2010;2(1):5780. DOI: 10.3402/jom.v2i0.5780.

Sitheeque MAM, Samaranayake LP. Chronic hyperplastic candidosis/candidiasis (candidal leukoplakia). Crit Rev Oral Biol Med. 2003;14(4):253–67. DOI: 10.1177/154411130301400403.

Gupta B, Chandra S, Raj V, Gupta V. Comparison of salivary flow and candidal carriage in patients with oral submucous fibrosis. J Oral Maxillofac Pathol. 2015; 19(2):158–63. DOI: 10.4103/0973-029X.164526.

O’Grady JF, Reade PC. Candida albicans as a promoter of oral mucosal neoplasia. Carcinogenesis. 1992;13(5):783–6. DOI: 10.1093/carcin/13.5.783.

Phulari RGS, Dave EJ. A systematic review on the mechanisms of malignant transformation of oral submucous fibrosis. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2020;29(5):470–3. DOI: 10.1097/CEJ.000575.

Jha VK, Kandula S, Ningappa Chinnannavar S, Rout P, Mishra S, Bajoria AA. Oral submucous fibrosis: Correlation of clinical grading to various habit factors. J Int Soc Prev Community Dent. 2019;9(4):363–71. DOI: 10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_92_19.

Singh A, Pandey A, Sharma N, Dhiman N, Jaiswara C, Tiwari P, et al. Comparative evaluation of buccal pad of fat with and without bovine collagen membrane in the management of oral submucous fibrosis: A prospective clinical study. Natl J Maxillofac Surg. 2020;11(1):57. DOI: 10.4103/njms.njms_70_19.

Boorghani M, Gholizadeh N, Taghavi Zenouz A, Vatankhah M, Mehdipour M. Oral lichen planus: Clinical features, etiology, treatment and management; a review of literature. J Dent Res Dent Clin Dent Prospects. 2010;4(1):3–9. DOI: 10.5681/joddd.2010.002.

Lavanya N, Jayanthi P, Rao UK, Ranganathan K. Oral lichen planus: An update on pathogenesis and treatment. J Oral Maxillofac Pathol. 2011;15(2):127– 32. DOI: 10.4103/0973-029X.84474.

Alnuaimi AD, Wiesenfeld D, O'Brien-Simpson NM, Reynolds EC, McCullough MJ. Oral Candida colonization in oral cancer patients and its relationship with traditional risk factors of oral cancer: a matched case-control study. Oral Oncol. 2015;51(2):139–45. DOI: 10.1016/j.oraloncology.2014.11.008.

Khangura AK, Gupta S, Mehta M, Gulati A. Isolation and identification of various Candida species in potentially malignant disorders of oral cavity: A retrospective study. Int J Trop Dis Health. 2022;32–44. DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2022/v43i630597.

Gonsalves WC, Wrightson AS, Henry RG. Common oral conditions in older persons. Am Fam Physician. 2008;78(7):845– 52. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18841733.

Aslam S, Ghafoor S. Association of Candida Species with Novel SARS-CoV-2 and Biomarkers for Fungal Premalignant Oral Lesions. J Pak Med Assoc. 2022;72(9):1827–30. DOI: 10.47391/JPMA.4632.

Gall F, Colella G, Di Onofrio V, Rossiello R, Angelillo IF, Liguori G. Candida spp. in oral cancer and oral precancerous lesions. New Microbiol. 2013;36(3):283–8. Available:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23912870.

Anila K, Hallikeri K, Shubhada C, Naikmasur VG, Kulkarni RD. Comparative study of Candida in oral submucous fibrosis and healthy individuals. Rev Odontociênc. 2011;26(1):71–6.

DOI: 10.1590/s1980-65232011000100016.

Ariyawardana A, Panagoda GJ, Fernando HN, Ellepola ANB, Tilakaratne WM, Samaranayake LP. Oral submucous fibrosis and oral yeast carriage - a case control study in Sri Lankan patients. Mycoses. 2007;50(2):116–20. DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0507.2006.01330.x.

Kumar RS, Ganvir S, Hazarey V. Candida and calcofluor white: Study in precancer and cancer. J Oral Maxillofac Pathol. 2009;13(1):2–8. DOI: 10.4103/0973-029X.44575.

Alnuaimi AD, Wiesenfeld D, O'Brien-Simpson NM, Reynolds EC, McCullough MJ. Oral Candida colonization in oral cancer patients and its relationship with traditional risk factors of oral cancer: a matched case-control study. Oral Oncol. 2015;51(2):139–45. DOI: 10.1016/j.oraloncology.2014.11.008.

Mehdipour M, Taghavi Zenouz A, Hekmatfar S, Adibpour M, Bahramian A, Khorshidi R. Prevalence of Candida species in erosive oral lichen planus. J Dent Res Dent Clin Dent Prospects. 2010;4(1):14–6. DOI: 10.5681/joddd.2010.004.

Dixit S, Goswami S, Dive A. Determination, distribution & phenotypic differentiation of Candida : Study in oral precancer and oral cancer. Indian J Dent Res Rev; 2012.

Ayuningtyas NF, Mahdani FY, Pasaribu TAS, Chalim M, Ayna VKP, Santosh ABR, et al. Role of Candida albicans in Oral Carcinogenesis. Pathophysiology. 2022; 29(4):650–62. DOI: 10.3390/pathophysiology29040051.