Bacteriological Assessment of Critical Areas in Three Selected Units in Jodhpur Dental College General Hospital, Jodhpur Rajasthan, India

H. S. Murjanatu

Microbiology Laboratory Department, Muhammad Abdullahi Wase Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria.

I. R. Maryam *

Medical Laboratory Science Department, Faculty of Allied Health Science, College of Medicine, Kaduna State University, Kaduna, Nigeria.

A. Y. Ahmed

Medical Laboratory Science Department, Faculty of Allied Health Science, College of Medicine, Kaduna State University, Kaduna, Nigeria.

S. A. Saeed

Medical Laboratory Science Department, Faculty of Allied Health Science, College of Medicine, Kaduna State University, Kaduna, Nigeria.

P. R. Anam

NRI Medical College, Chinakakani, Andhra Pradesh, India.

L. D. Rogo

Medical Laboratory Science Department, Faculty of Allied Health Science, College of Medicine, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

The hospital environment plays a crucial role in the chain of infection spread. Thus, there is need to attack the chain of infection at its weakest link as the most effective way in combating and/or preventing nosocomial infections. The study aims to assess the common aerobic pathogenic bacteria in the different departments of Jodhpur National University Dental Hospital and to establish the best disinfectant as well as disinfection procedure. A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted.  Air and surface samples were taken before and after dental procedures from all the three departments within durations of 14 days. Different antiseptics were used so as to compare their effectiveness. Swabs taken from different places were streaked on blood agar plates and incubated at 37oC under aerobic conditions for 24 hours. After incubation, isolates obtained were appropriately identified. After aerobic incubation of the settle plates at 370C for 24hours, the colonies on each plate were counted and recorded as the number of bacteria carrying particles settling over the area of the plate in a given period of time. The level of bacterial contamination of air is usually expressed as the number of bacteria carrying particles per cubic millimeter. A total of 274 surface samples and 97 air samples were collected. Bacteria were isolated in all air samples while only 255 surface samples had growth. The predominant species in all services was Bacillus spp, followed by coagulase negative Staphylococci, Micrococcus luteus, aerobic spore formers and least was Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  The bacteria isolated in the air were similar to those isolated from surfaces. In conclusion, lack of a universal procedure for surveillance of nosocomial infection, presence of pathogenic bacteria, poor hand hygiene and heavy contamination of some important surfaces are the most important problems in our hospitals.

Keywords: Bacteriological, critical, isolates, culture, sensitivity


How to Cite

Murjanatu , H. S., Maryam , I. R., Ahmed , A. Y., Saeed , S. A., Anam , P. R., & Rogo , L. D. (2023). Bacteriological Assessment of Critical Areas in Three Selected Units in Jodhpur Dental College General Hospital, Jodhpur Rajasthan, India. Microbiology Research Journal International, 33(3), 1–8. https://doi.org/10.9734/mrji/2023/v33i31368

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

CDC. Guideline for hand hygiene in health-care setting: Recommendation of the health care infection control practices advisory committee and the HICPAC/SHEA hand hygiene task force. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2002;51:1-4.

Jarvis WR. The inanimate environment In: Bennett JV, Brachman PS (eds), Hospital infections, 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA, Lippincott-Raven. 2007:275-302.

Kampf G, Kramer A. Epidemiologic background of hand hygiene and evaluation of the most important agents for scrubs and rubs. Clinical Microbiology Review. 2004;17:863-93.

Chuaybamroong P, Choomseer P, Sribenjalux P. Comparison between hospital single air unit and central air unit for ventilation performances and airborne microbes. Aerosol and Air Qualification Research. 2008;8(1):28-36.

McCarthy GM, Sali CS, Bednarsh H, Jorge J, Wangrangsimakul K, Page-Shafer K. Transmission of HIV in the dental clinic and elsewhere. Oral Disease. 2002;8(Supplement 2):126–135.

Obbard, JP, Fang LS. Air-borne concentrations of bacteria in a hospital environment in Singapore. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution. 2003;144:333-341.

Hambraeus A. Aerobiology in the operating room–a review. Journal of Hospital Acquired Infection. 1988;11(supplement A):68-76.

Atlas RM. Microorganisms and human diseases. Mosby-Year book. 1995:850.

Victor HMC, Gisely NV, Thiago FC, Maxine EA, De Almeida, Carolinie BND. Microbial contamination of a university dental clinic in Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Oral Science. 2016;15(4).

Friberg B, Friberg S, Burman LG. Inconsistent correlation between aerobic bacterial surface and air counts in operating rooms with ultra clean laminar airflows: Proposal of new bacteriological standard for surface decontamination. Journal of Hospital Infections. 1999; 42:287-293.

Friberg B, Friberg S, Burman LG. Correlation between surface and air counts of particles carrying aerobic bacteria in operating rooms with turbulent ventilation: An experimental study. Journal of Hospital Infections. 1999;42:61-68.

= Dickson SK, Bebermeyer RD. Guidelines for infection control in dental health care settings disinfection of bronchoscopes, contaminated with mycobacterium tuberculosis and mycobacterium aviun-intracellulase in sputum. Journal of Hospital Infection. 2013;45:278-282. Available:www.dentalcare.com/en-US/dental.education/continuing-education/ce90/ce90.aspx

Genet C, Kibru G, Tsegaye W. Indoor air bacterial load and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of isolates in operating rooms and surgical wards at Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Southwest. Ethiopian Journal of Health Science. 2011; 21(1):9-17.

Maki DG, Carla J. Alvarado, Carol BS, Carol A. Hassemer, Mary Ann. Relationship of the inanimate hospital environment to endemic nosocomial infection. National English Journal of Medicine. 1982;307:1562-1566.

Lwanga S. lemeshow S. Sample size determination in health studies: A practical manual medicine; 1991.

Sarmukaddan SB, Garad SG. On validity of assumptions while determining sample size. Indian Journal of Community Medicine. 2006;29(2):204.

Kelkar U, Kelkar S, Bal Abhijit M, Kulkarni S. Microbiological evaluation of various parameters in ophthalmic operating rooms. The need to establish guidelines. Indian Journal of Ophthalmology. 2003;51:171-6.

Prathab AG, Lalitha C. Microbiological surveillance of air quality in operation theatres - comparison of the conventional settle plate techniques versus use of an air sampling device. Journal of Evolution of Medical and Dental Sciences. 2012; 1(4):371-381.

Singh K, Dar FA, Kishor K. Bacterial contamination in operating theatres of district hospital Budgam in Kashmir division. Innovative Journal of Medical and Health Science. 2013;3(2):62–63.

Fekadu S, Getachewa B. Microbiological assessment of indoor air of teaching hospital wards: A case of Jimma University Specialized Hospital. Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences. 2015;25(2): 117-122.

Ghadah Salim Abusalim. Prevalence and investigation of bacterial contamination in dental healthcare associated environment. Journal of King Saudi University-Science. 2022;34(6):102153.

Sharzad T, Ghazaleh S, Molook T, Soodabeh TP. Investigation of microbial contamination in the clininic and laboratory of the prosthodontics department of dental school. Pesqui Bras Odontopediatria Clinical Integration. 2021;21:e0014.

Hoshyari N, Allahgholipour Z, Ahanjan M, Moosahzadeh M. Evaluation of bacterial contamination in clinical environment of Sari Dental School. Journal of Research in Dentomaxillofacial Science. 2018;4(2): 19-25.

Qudiesat K, Abu-Elteen KH, Elkarmi AZ, Hamad M, Abussaud M. Assessment of airborne pathogens in healthcare settings. African Journal of Microbiology Research. 2009;3:66–76. Available:https://www.academicjournals.org/ajmr

Access on 10 October 2021

Alireza E, Kayedani A, Jahangir M, Kalantar E, Jalali M. Isolation of common aerobic bacterial pathogens from the environment of seven hospitals, Ahvaz, Iran. Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology 2010;4(2):75-82.

Martin DHJ, Denyer SP, McDonnell G, Maillard JY. Resistance and cross-resistance to oxidizing agents of bacterial isolates from endoscope washer disinfectors. Journal of Hospital Infections. 2008;69(4):377-83.