Seasonal Variation of Mycorrhizal Association (Root Colonization and Spore Density) in Selected Industrial Sites in Kota District of Rajasthan, India
Issue: 2023 - Volume 33 [Issue 1]
Suresh Singh Rajpurohit
Janki Devi Bajaj Government Girls College, Kota, India.
Poonam Jaiswal *
Department of Botany, Janki Devi Bajaj Government Girls College, Kota, India.
*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
This paper aims to assess the impact of seasonal variation on mycorrhizal association in selected industrial wastelands in the Kota district of Rajasthan. In the study mycorrhizal association was quantified in terms of percentage root colonization and spore density in three different seasons. The study was conducted during 2019-2021 and the data was collected for 3 seasons; summer (March-June), Rainy (July–October), and winter (November-February) to study the response to variable climatic factors to the root colonization and spore density of mycorrhiza. To determine the significance of variations in AMF spore density and percentage root colonization during different seasons, one-way ANOVA was performed. Results showed that in all the sites maximum mean spore density was observed in the summer (March-June) season but in the case of percentage root colonization, the value was found maximum in the humid season (July-October) in the control site whereas, in the three experimental sites, the maximum root colonization was observed in summer season (march-June). Hence, it may be concluded that hot climatic condition is favourable for mycorrhizal spore formation and root colonization was also favoured by hot climate.
Keywords: Seasonal variation, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, spore density, root colonization
How to Cite
Gadkar V, David-Schwartz R, Kunik T, Kapulnik Y. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal colonization. Factors involved in host recognition. Plant Physiol. 2001;127(4): 1493-9.
Smith SE, Read DJ. Mycorrhizal symbiosis. 3rd Ed. London: Academic Press. 2008;17.
Kaushik P, Sandhu OS, Brar NS, Kumar V, Malhi GS, Kesh H et al. Soil metagenomics: prospects and challenges. In: Radhakrishnan R, editor. mycorrhizal fungi-utilization in agriculture and forestry. IntechOpen. 2020;1-18.
Bolan NS. A critical review of the role of mycorrhizae fungi in the uptake of phosphorus by plants. Plant Soil. 1991; 134(2):189-207.
Bürkert B, Robson A. Zn uptake in subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.) by three vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in a root-free sandy soil. Soil Biol Biochem. 1994;26(9): 1117-24.
Manimegalai V, Selvaraj T, Ambikapathy V. Studies on isolation and identification of VAM fungi in Solanum viarum Dunal of medicinal plants. Adv Appl Sci Res. 2011; 2(4):621-8.
Harley JL, Smith SE. Mycorrhizal symbiosis. London: Academic Press; 1983. p. 483.
Borowicz VA. Do arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi alter plant pathogen relations. Ecology. 2001;82(11):3057-68.
Meharg AA, Cairney JWG. Ectomycorrhizas-extending the capabilities of rhizosphere remediation? Soil Biol Biochem. 2000;32(11-12):1475-84.
Miller RM, Jastrow JD. Hierarchy of root and mycorrhizal fungal interactions with soil aggregation. Soil Biol Biochem. 1990;22(5):579-84.
Muthukumar T, Senthilkumar M, Rajangam M, Udaiyan K. Arbuscular mycorrhizal morphology and dark septate fungal associations in medicinal and aromatic plants of Western Ghats, Southern India. Mycorrhiza. 2006;17(1):11-24.
Lugo MA, Cabello MN. Native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) from mountain grassland (Cordoba, Argentina) I. Seasonal variation of fungal spore diversity. Mycologia. 2002;94(4):579- 86.
Gerdemann JW, Nicolson TH. Spores of arbuscular mycorrhizal Endogone extracted from soil by wet sieving and decanting. Trans Br Mycol Soc. 1963;46:235-44.
Schenck NC, Perez Y. Manual for the identification of vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Gainesville, FL: Synergistic Publications. 1990;1-286.
Phillips JM, Hayman DS. Improved procedures for clearing root and staining parasitic and vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi for rapid assessment of infection. Trans Bri Mycol Soc. 1970;55 (1):158-IN18.
Giovannetti M, Mosse B. An evaluation of techniques of measuring vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal infection in roots. New Phytol. 1980;84(3):489-500.
Rosendahl S, Rosendahl CN. Seasonal variation in occurrence of VA mycorrhizal infection types in a Danish Grassland community. In: Read DJ, Lewis DH, Fitter AH, Alexander IJ, editors. Mycorrhizas in ecosystems. Cambridge: CABI Publishing. 1992;400.
Boddy L, Büntgen U, Egli S, Gange AC, Heegaard E, Kirk PM et al. Climate variation effects on fungal fruiting. Fungal Ecol. 2014;10:20-33.
Khanam D, MAU M, Arm S, Hossain T. Effect of edaphic factors on root colonization and spore population of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Bull Inst Trop Agric Kyushu Univ. 2006;29(1):97-104.
Rajpurohit SS and Jaiswal P. Effect of Physico-chemical Properties on Spore Density and Root Colonization of Mycorrhizal Fungi in Industrial Wastelands in Kota, Rajasthan. Int. J. Plant & Soil Sc. 2022:34(21): 114-126,
onwuka B, Mang B. Effects of soil temperature on some soil properties and plant growth. Adv Plants Agric Res. 2018;8(1):34-7.
Repo TI, Leinonen AR, Finer L. The effect of soil temperature on bid phenology, chlorophyll fluorescence, carbohydrate content and cold bardiness of Norway spruce seedlings. Physiol Plant. 2004;121: 93-100.
Sivakumar N. Effect of edaphic factors and seasonal variation on spore density and root colonization of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in sugarcane fields. Ann Microbiol. 2013;63(1):151-60.
Carvalho LM, Cacados I, Martiris-Loucao MA. Temporal and spatial variation of arbuscular mycorrhizas in salt marsh plants of Tagus estuary (Portugal). Mycorrhiza. 2001;11:303-9.
Escudero V, Mendoza R. Seasonal variation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in temperate grasslands along a wide hydrologic gradient. Mycorrhiza. 2005;15 (4):291-9.
Jamiołkowska A, Księżniak A, Gałązka A, Hetman B, Kopacki M, Skwaryło-Bednarz B. Impact of abiotic factors on development of the community of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the soil: a review. Int Agrophys. 2018;32(1):133-40.
Chandra KK, Jamaluddin A. Seasonal variation of VAM fungi in tree species planted in coal mine overbunden of Kusmunda (MP). J Trop For. 1998; 14(2):118-23.
John TVS, Coleman DC. The role of mycorrhizae in plant ecology. Can J Bot. 1983;61(3):1005-14.
Iqbal SH, Queorshi KS. The influence of mixed showing (cereals and crucifers) and crop rotation on the development of mycorrhiza and subsequent growth of crops under field conditions. Biologia. 1986;22:287-98.
Giovannetti M. Seasonal variations of vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizas and endogonaceous spores in a maritime and sand dune. Trans Br Mycol Soc. 1985;84 (4):679-84.
Van Der Heijden MGA, Klironomos JN, Ursic M, Moutoglis P, Streitwolf-Engel R, Boller T et al. Mycorrhizal fungal diversity determines plant biodiversity, ecosystem variability and productivity. Nature. 1998;396(6706):69-72.
Bever JD. Plant Soil. Host-specificity of AM fungal population growth rates can generate feedback on plant growth. 2002; 244(1/2):281-90.
Sharma C, Gupta RK, Pathak RK, Choudhary KK. Seasonal colonization of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi in the roots of Camellia sinensis (Tea) in different tea gardens of India. Int Sch Res Not. 2013; 2013:1-6.
Morte A, Lovisolo C, Schubert A. Effect of drought stress on growth and water relations of the mycorrhizal association Helianthemum almeriense-Terfezia claveryi. Mycorrhiza. 2000;10(3):115-9.
Al-Karaki G, McMichael B, Zak J. Field response of wheat to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and drought stress. Mycorrhiza. 2004;14(4):263-9.
Vieira Junior WG, Moura JBD, Souza RFD, Braga APM, Matos DJC, Brito GHM et al. Seasonal variation in mycorrhizal community of different cerrado phytophysiomies. Front Microbiol. 2020; 11:576764.
Hammer EC, Rillig MC. The influence of different stresses on glomalin levels in an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus—salinity increases glomalin content. Plos One. 2011;6(12): e28426.