The Characteristic, Occurrence of Aflatoxin and Associated Risk with Human Health

Sharique Ahmad *

Department of Pathology, Era's Lucknow Medical College and Hospital, Era University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh – 226003, India.

Subuhi Anwar

Department of Pathology, Era's Lucknow Medical College and Hospital, Era University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh – 226003, India.

Pushpendra D. Pratap

Department Biochemistry, Era's Lucknow Medical College and Hospital, Era University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh - 226003, India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Aflatoxins are toxins produced by the fungus Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus flavus. They are colorless, cannot be detected under normal light, odorless and contaminated foods most often do not have any special or bad smell. Environmental factors such as the temperature, and vectors causing grain damage have an important effect on favoring the colonization of fungus and the production of aflatoxins. They contaminate agriculture products worldwide affecting their quality, safety & security. The effects on safety & security cause health threats among people and animals on their long-term exposure through consumption because they are mutagenic, teratogenic, genotoxic, and carcinogenic. Humans and animals can develop the disease known as aflatoxicosis as a result of aflatoxins known as Acute and Chronic primary aflatoxicosis. Aflatoxins' long-term effects have been shown to decrease normal immune response also it can cause growth retardation in babies and affect nutritional deficiency. It can disrupt such enzymes that can affect hormones, endocrine glands, and neurotransmitters which may influence a person's cognitive abilities, memory, and learning, restlessness, muscular tremors, seizures, absentmindedness, tremors, uncoordinated movement of muscles, and aberrant agitation are caused by deficiencies in the neurotransmitters. Aflatoxin toxicity in humans can range from acute or chronic conditions to liver damage such as liver carcinoma, internal bleeding, edema, and instant death. Acute toxicosis can cause gastrointestinal dysfunctions in humans and animals. Aflatoxins have been shown to have detrimental negative impacts on vascular fragility and cardiovascular health, tissue bleeding, and teratogenic consequences. According to reports, aflatoxins have severe and detrimental impacts mostly on the respiratory systems it can also cause lung cancer.

Keywords: Aflatoxicosis, food security, safety, fungi, one health


How to Cite

Ahmad, S., Anwar, S., & Pratap, P. D. (2022). The Characteristic, Occurrence of Aflatoxin and Associated Risk with Human Health. Microbiology Research Journal International, 32(7), 39–50. https://doi.org/10.9734/mrji/2022/v32i71333

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