Microbiology Research Journal International http://journalmrji.com/index.php/MRJI <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Microbiology Research Journal International (2456-7043)</strong> is dedicated to publish research papers, reviews, and short communications in all areas of Microbiology such as virology, mycology, parasitology, bacteriology, clinical microbiology, phycology, parasitology, protozoology, microbial physiology, immunology, microbial genetics, medical microbiology, microbial pathogenesis and epidemiology disease pathology and immunology, probiotics and prebiotics</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US Microbiology Research Journal International 2456-7043 Compliance Monitoring of Microbiological and Physicochemical Parameters of Abattoirs’ Effluents Discharged into Water Bodies in Owerri, Nigeria http://journalmrji.com/index.php/MRJI/article/view/30147 <p><strong>Aims: </strong>To assess the quality of abattoir effluents discharged into water bodies in Owerri Municipal, Nigeria using microbiological and physicochemical approaches.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong>&nbsp; The study employed microbiological and physicochemical parameters to determine effluent and water quality.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> Abattoirs in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria, between September 2014 and February 2016.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Physicochemical and microbiological analyses were carried out on three abattoir effluents and their receiving water bodies. Counts of total heterotrophic bacteria, total coliform and faecal coliform, Vibrio, Salmonella and Shigella were carried using the plate count method.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The bacterial isolates in the various samples included members of the genera <em>Bacillus, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Escherichia, Klebsiella, Lactobacillus, Listeria, Micrococcus, Proteus, Salmonella, Serratia, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus</em> and <em>Vibrio</em>. The order of increasing effluent’s total coliform and faecal counts within the different abattoirs are given as Egbu abattoir &gt; Amakohia Ikeduru abattoir &gt; Ahiara abattoir. For the receiving streams, the order was as follows, for the total coliform count: Egbu abattoir &gt; Ahiara abattoir &gt; Amakohia Ikeduru abattoir while for faecal coliform: Egbu abattoir &gt; Amakohia Ikeduru abattoir &gt; Ahiara abattoir. About 85.7% and 42.9% of the total bacterial isolates were found in the Egbu abattoir effluent and receiving the stream, respectively. Ahiara abattoir’s effluent had 66.7% of the bacteria while its receiving stream had 23.8%. Over 57% of the total bacterial isolates were distributed in the Amakohia Ikeduru abattoir with 33.3% for its receiving stream.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This study revealed that pathogenic bacteria from abattoir were constantly discharged into receiving streams, thereby presenting serious health risks. The health status of residents of Owerri who have access to these water bodies should be studied to determine the health implications of such unregulated practices.</p> Constance O. Egesi Victor Ezebuiro Anthony C. Ekeleme Charles E. Obiukwu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-09-09 2019-09-09 1 16 10.9734/mrji/2019/v28i630147 Assessment of Physicochemical and Bacteriological Parameters of Borehole and Hand Dug Well Water in Michika and Environs, Adamawa State, Nigeria http://journalmrji.com/index.php/MRJI/article/view/30148 <p>Physicochemical and Bacteriological Parameters of Borehole and Hand dug well water of Michika town in Michika Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria and environs were assessed to determine their suitability or otherwise for drinking and domestic purposes. Ten (10) water samples, five each from boreholes and hand-dug wells, from five selected areas in Michika town, were collected during the months of January and February 2018. The water samples which are extensively used for drinking and other domestic purposes, were randomly collected and the results were compared with WHO and NAFDAC standards guidelines for drinking water. These samples were analyzed for their physicochemical characteristics (pH, temperature, electrical conductivity, TDS, Turbidity, hardness), heavy metals,<em> Escherichia coli</em> (<em>E. coli</em>) and coliform counts. The results of the investigation revealed that the physicochemical and bacteriological parameters falls within the maximum permissible limits of NAFDAC and WHO guidelines for drinking water. The physicochemical concentrations were higher in borehole water than in hand dug well water; Lead and Cadmium were not detected in all the samples. All the water samples were free from feacal contamination except in Barikin Dlaka hand dug well which contained 0.05 ± 0.001 MPN/100 ml total coliform count which is below the WHO/NAFDAC maximum permissible levels. The suitability of water for domestic and drinking purposes indicated that the water samples were within the standards prescribed for potable water. However, there is need for routine checks to ascertain the suitability or otherwise of these water sources so as to forestall outbreak of water born diseases.</p> Priscilla Alexander I. B. Bwatanglang Juth Daniel ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-09-10 2019-09-10 1 11 10.9734/mrji/2019/v28i630148 Microbiological Compliance Assessment of Imported Frozen Fishes and Local Fresh Chilled Fishes Marketed in Northern Benin (West Africa) http://journalmrji.com/index.php/MRJI/article/view/30149 <p>Since the food safety and the foodborne diseases are becoming a main health concern in developing countries, the aim of this study is to determine, in accordance with the specific international standards, the compliance of the main frozen imported fish and fresh chilled fishes marketed and consumed in Northern Benin. From December 18 to March 5, 2019, the microbiological quality of the two main imported frozen fish (<em>Scomber scombrus</em> and <em>Trachurus trachurus</em>) and the two main freshwater fish locally produced (<em>Clarias gariepinus</em> and <em>Oreochromis niloticus</em>) and marketed in Benin were analysed in accordance with ISO standards specific to each germ counted as Colony-Forming Units (CFU). The Mesophilic aerobic flora and fecal coliforms loads in fresh chilled fishes (256,577 and 349.6 CFU, respectively) are significantly higher (<em>p&lt;0.05</em>) than in the frozen fish (143,620 and 157.0 CFU, respectively) marketed in the northern Benin. <em>T. trachurus</em> seems more contaminated (p&lt;0.01) by these germs than <em>S. scombrus</em>, and <em>O. niloticus</em> showed significantly higher loads (<em>p&lt;0.01</em>) of these bacteria than the <em>C. gariepinus</em>. No salmonella colony was observed in all the samples, and in the fresh and frozen fish, <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> (11.27 and&nbsp; 10.77 CFU, respectively) and Sulfite-Reducing Anaerobes (0.38 and&nbsp; 0.38 CFU, respectively) loads showed no significant differences (<em>p&gt;0,05</em>) both between origin and between species. However,&nbsp; the microbiological quality of all fish both imported frozen &nbsp;fishes and fresh fishes analysed during this study have not comply with the requirements of the standard AFNOR (2000) specific to frozen fish and fresh chilled fish. They are so classified as “unsatisfactory hygienic” due to their very high fecal coliforms loads. It would therefore be interesting to raise awareness among stakeholders in the marketing system for fish products on good hygiene practices and the HACCP approach.&nbsp;</p> A. Belco Latifou I. Imorou Toko P. U. Tougan L. Djibril A. I. Gouda E. Y. Attakpa A. Chikou ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-09-14 2019-09-14 1 11 10.9734/mrji/2019/v28i630149