Microbiology Research Journal International 2020-04-01T08:32:48+00:00 Microbiology Research Journal International Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Microbiology Research Journal International (ISSN:&nbsp;2456-7043)</strong> is dedicated to publish research papers, reviews, and short communications in all areas of Microbiology such as virology, mycology, parasitology, bacteriology, clinical microbiology, phycology, parasitology, protozoology, microbial physiology, immunology, microbial genetics, medical microbiology, microbial pathogenesis and epidemiology disease pathology and immunology, probiotics and prebiotics</p> Prevalence and Antibiogram of Gram-negative Bacteria Isolated from Well Water in Ula-Ubie Community, Ahoada West, Nigeria 2020-04-01T08:32:48+00:00 R. R. Nrior M. Okpokiri N. P. Akani <p>Antibiotic resistance has become a great global problem. Thus, it has emerged as a public health challenge. The antibiotic susceptibility pattern of bacteria in well water was characterized with a view of determining the level of resistance in the environment. Fifty well water samples were collected from ten different points in Ula-Ubie community, Ahoda, Rivers State for a period of five months. Standard microbiological methods were used to analyse the population and types of bacteria in the water while methods recommended by the American Public Health Association (APHA) was used to determine the physicochemical parameters of the samples. The antibiotic susceptibility profile of the bacterial isolates was carried out using the disc diffusion methods. The total heterotrophic bacteria of the water samples ranged from 0.93±0.46 to 2.02±1.06 log<sub>10</sub> CFU/ml. The coliform counts ranged from 0.45±0.42 - 2.55±2.33 log<sub>10</sub> CFU/ml, respectively. Despite the variations in the counts of the different bacterial population, there was no significant differences (<em>P &gt; 0.05</em>) in the different well water samples. The physicochemical parameters except the pH were all within the permissible limits.<em> Klebsiella </em>spp<em>, Pseudomonas </em>spp,<em> Serratia </em>spp and<em> Enterobacter</em> spp were identified in the well water. The pH of the water stations ranged from 4.66 to 5.80. The temperature ranged from 24.0 to 24.7. The electrical conductivity, salinity, dissolved oxygen, total hardness, alkalinity, total suspended solids, biochemical oxygen demand, nitrate, chloride, calcium and magnesium ranged from 22.9 – 219, 0.03-0.13, 4.50-4.90, 5.00-22.0, ˂0.01-3.00, ˂0.01, 49.6-84.5, 1.00-17.4, 3.00-24.5, 4.25-12.9 and 0,722-1.55 respectively. The antibiotic susceptibility profile showed that all the isolates were resistant to ceftazidime and augmentin, whereas <em>Enterobacter</em> spp were the most resistant bacteria amongst other bacterial genera to the antibiotics. Meanwhile there is an existence of multi-drug resistance. Thus, the wells could be considered not potable due to the presence of these bacterial isolates and the level of antibiotic resistant. Proper sanitation and cleanliness of well should be encouraged.</p> 2020-03-13T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Clinico-microbilogical Profile of Chronic Osteomyelitis in a Tertiary Care Hospital of North India 2020-04-01T08:32:48+00:00 Humaira Bashir Asifa Nazir <p><strong>Aims: </strong>Chronic osteomyelitis is an important clinical entity in patients with bone infections and is associated with great morbidity especially in developing countries. It is a persistent disease, difficult to treat and eradicate completely. Early identification and diagnosis of osteomyelitis has led to the improved management of osteomyelitis. This study was undertaken to determine the bacteriological profile of osteomyelitis and the antibiotic resistance pattern of various isolates obtained.</p> <p><strong>Study Design: </strong>It was a prospective cross-sectional hospital based study.</p> <p>Place and Duration of Study: The present study was conducted in the Department of Microbiology, Government Medical College, Srinagar, from January 2019 to December 2019.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>In all, 208 patients with chronic osteomyelitis were documented during the study period. Clinical specimens like pus, pus swabs, sequestrum of bone and synovial fluid were taken and cultured aerobically .The samples were processed using standard microbiological techniques. Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the bacterial isolates were done using the Vitek 2 (bioMerieux, France) system.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>A total of 208 samples were received out of which, 91 (43.75%) were positive by culture. Out of the 91 positive samples, <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>65 (64.2%) was the most commonly isolated pathogen and 67.6% of <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>were MRSA. Other important organisms isolated included <em>Acinetobacter sp </em>(10.98%), <em>E. coli </em>(6.59%), <em>Proteus mirabilis </em>(4.3%), <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa </em>(2.1%) and <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae </em>(2.1%). All the isolates of <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>were resistant to Penicillin. However, Vancomycin resistance was not detected in any of the patients with MRSA. All Gram negative bacilli were sensitive to Colistin.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The wide range of causative organisms and degree of resistance to commonly used anti- microbials supports the importance of pus culture and provides important information to guide clinician’s choice of empirical antibiotics. Appropriate selection of antibiotic would help to treat the disease successfully and limit the emergence of drug resistant strains to prevent morbidity &amp; mortality.</p> 2020-03-14T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## PCR-RFLP of the Vitamin D Receptor Gene in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patients Deficient in Vitamin D3 in Cote d’Ivoire 2020-04-01T08:32:47+00:00 Lydie Boyvin Aya Jeanne Armande Aké Yapi Guillaume Yayé Moumouni Faïza Alassani Kipré Laurent Séri Gnogbo Alexis Bahi Louise Odile Moke-Bédji Joseph Allico Djaman <p><strong>Aims: </strong>This study was to identify mutations in patients’ vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene in Côte d'Ivoire, precisely in Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients deficient in vitamin D<sub>3.</sub></p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Fifty (50) DNA extractions from peripheral blood mononuclear cells collected from HIV positive and vitamin D<sub>3</sub> deficient patients were analyzed after verifying their integrity by quantification of genomic DNA and migration from agarose gel. The use of the restriction enzymes Dpn I, Bg III and Pst I made it possible to carry out the PCR-RLFP of the fragments Fok-1 in exon 2, Bsm-1 and Apa-1 in intron 8 and Taq-1 in exon 9.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The analysis of the DNA fragments Fok-1 in exon 2 and Bsm-1 in intron 8 of the VDR gene from HIV positive patients deficient in vitamin D<sub>3</sub> showed a significantly high prevalence of mutant genotype (100% and 98%) respectively p = 0.0001. Furthermore, in this study, a prevalence of 6% of mutant genotype was observed in Taq-1 of exon 9 of the VDR gene.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The high prevalence of mutant genotypes observed in the DNA fragments of Fok-1 in exon 2 and Bsm-1 in intron 8 of the VDR gene studied confirms the presence of mutations in the VDR gene of these patients. It would, therefore, be necessary to sequence the DNA fragments with mutations in order to identify the mutations that affect the VDR gene and that are responsible for the vitamin D<sub>3</sub> deficiency observed in these patients.</p> 2020-03-27T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##