Main Article Content
One of the most studied or researched sector is probiotics. The probiotic sector has generated hundreds of publications, products and also created awareness of public health benefits. Probiotics means “live microorganisms (usually bacteria) that are similar to beneficial microorganisms found in the human gut that are taken as dietary supplements or found in foods.” Such work will include, competitive exclusion, generating inhibitory components, a striving for the same nutrients and interference with quorum sensing mechanism and improved immunity. Probiotic one of the most reliable approach to combat fish disease for sustainable aquaculture. This microbial intervention approach can boost fish yield by improving feed utilization, nevertheless provide protection from pathogens by different modes of action. The use probiotic containing food has the beneficial properties has been known for centuries in human health however research in probiotics for aquaculture was a journey from last two decades. Here we are discussing the role of probiotics in aquatic animal and aquaculture environment, particularly focusing on their functional changes such as growth promoter, biocontrol and bioremediation agents, interrupt the action of pathogens by producing inhibitory substances. Finally gut morphology of rohu, Labeo ruhita were compared between probiotic and basal diet fed fishes.
Msangi S, Kobayashi M, Batka M, Vannuccini S, Dey MM, Anderson JL. Fish to 2030: Prospects for fisheries and aquaculture. World Bank Report. 2013; 83177(1):102.
Mamun MAA, Nasren S, Rathore SS, Rakesh K, Pai M, Poojary SR. Bacterial biofilm: A novel antigen for oral vaccination of fish. Bangladesh Journal of Zoology. 2017;45(2):189-192.
Mamun MAA, Nasren S, Bari SM. Role of probiotics in aquaculture: Importance and future guidelines. J. Bangladesh Acad. Sci. 2018;42(1):105-109.
Mamun MAA, Nasren S, Abhiman PB, Rathore SS, Sowndarya NS, Ramesh KS, Shankar KM. Investigation of production, formation and characterization of biofilm cells of Aeromonas hydrophila for oral vaccination of fish. J. Exp. Zool. India. 2019a;22(2):1115-1123.
Ringø E. Probiotics in aquaculture. In: Disease control in fish and shrimp aquaculture in Southeast Asia-Diagnosis and husbandry techniques, Edts: Inui Y. and Cruz-Lacierda ER, Proceedings of the SEAFDEC-OIE seminar workshop, Iloilo City, Philippines. 2011;107-135.
Nayak SK. Probiotics and immunity: A fish perspective. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2010; 29:2-14.
Akhter N, Wu B, Memon AM, Mohsin M. Probiotics and prebiotics associated with aquaculture: A review. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2015;45(2):733-741.
Lilly DM, Stillwell RH. Probiotics: Growth-promoting factors produced by micro-organisms. Science. 1965;147(3659):747-748.
Gatesoupe FJ. Lactic acid bacteria increase the resistance of turbot larvae, Scophthalmus maximus, against pathogenic Vibrio. Aquatic living resources. 1994;7(4):277-282.
Mohamed KSK. Probiotics in aquaculture. In: Aquaculture Medicine and Aquatic Animal Health Management (Ed. Singh ISB, Yadava YS). Aquaculture Authority, Chennai and National Centre for Aquatic Animal Health, Kochi-684016. 2005;31-145.
Afrc RF. Probiotics in man and animals. Journal of Applied Bacteriology. 1989; 66(5):365-378.
Merrifield DL, Dimitrolou A, Foey A, Davies SJ, Baker RTM, B Røgwald J, Castex M, Ringø E. The current status and future focus of probiotic and prebiotic applications for salmonids. Aquaculture. 2010;302:1-18.
Sahu MK, Swarnakumar NS, Sivakumar K, Thangaradjou T, Kannan L. Probiotics in aquaculture: Importance and future perspectives. Indian J. Microb. 2008;48: 299–308.
Lazado CC, Caipang CM, Estante EG. Prospects of host associated micro-organisms in fish and penaeids as probiotics with immunomodulatory functions. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2015; 45(1):2-12.
Essa MA, El-Serafy SS, El-Ezabi MM, Daboor SM, Esmael NA, Lall SP. Effect of different dietary probiotics on growth, feed utilization and digestive enzymes activities of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Journal of the Arabian Aquaculture Soc. 2010;5(2):143-162.
Nesara KM, Jayaraj EG, Amoga KR, Sandeep CV. Effects of dietary probiotic and organic acid alone and in combination on the growth performance of Indian major carp, Labeo rohita. Journal of Experimental Zool. India. 2018;21(2):805-812.
Son VM, Chang CC, Wu MC, Guu YK, Chiu C, Hand CW. Dietary administration of the probiotic, Lactobacillus plantarum, enhanced the growth, innate immune responses, and disease resistance of the grouper Epinephelus coioides. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2009;26(5):691–698.
Aly SM, Abdel-Galil Ahmed Y, Abdel-Aziz Ghareeb A, Mohamed MF. Studies on Bacillus subtilis and Lactobacillus acidophilus, as potential probiotics, on the immune response and resistance of Tilapia nilotica (Oreochromis niloticus) to challenge infections. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2008;25:128-136.
Lash, Bradley W, Tami H Mysliwiec, Hassan Gourama. Detection and partial characterization of a broad-range bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus plantarum (ATCC 8014). Food Microbiology. 2005;199–204.
Balcazar JL, Vendrell D, De Blas I, Ruiz-Zarzuela I, Muzquiz JL, Girones O. Characterization of probiotic properties of lactic acid bacteria isolated from intestinal microbiota of fish. Aquaculture. 2008;278: 188-191.
Denev S, Staykov Y, Moutafchieva R, Beev G. Microbial ecology of the gastrointestinal tract of fish and the potential application of probiotics and prebiotics in finfish aquaculture. Int. Aquatic Res. 2009;1:1- 29.
Tinh NTN, Dierckens K, Sorgeloos P, Bossier P. A review of the functionality of probiotics in the larvi culture food chain. Marine Biotechnology. 2007;10:1-12.
Panigrahi A, Azad IS. Microbial intervention for better fish health in aquaculture: The Indian scenario. Fish Physiology and biochemistry. 2007;33:429-440.
Ibrahem MD. Evolution of probiotics in aquatic world: Potential effects, the current status in Egypt and recent prospectives. Journal of Advanced Research. 2015; 6(6):765-791.
Kamei Y, Yoshimizu M, Ezura Y, Kimura T. Screening of bacteria with antiviral activity from fresh water salmonid hatcheries. Microbiology and Immunology. 1998;32(1):67-73.
Li J, Tan B, Mai K. Dietary probiotic Bacillus OJ and isomalto-oligosaccharides influence the intestine microbial populations, immune responses and resistance to white spot syndrome virus in shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Aquaculture. 2009;291:35-40.
Harikrishnan R, Balasundaram C, Heo MS. Effect of probiotics enriched diet on Paralichthys olivaceus infected with lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV). Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2010;29(5):868-874.
Lee KK, Liu PC, Kou GH, Chen SN. Passive immunization of the tiger prawn, Penaeus monodon, using rabbit antisera to Vibrio harveyi, Letters in Applied Microbiology. 1997;25(1):34-37.
Lakshmi B, Viswanath B, Sai Gopal DVR. Probiotics as antiviral agents in shrimp aquaculture. Journal of Pathogens. 2013; 1-13.
(Article ID 424123)
Lategan MJ, Torpy FR, Gibson LF. Control of saprolegniosis in the eel (Anguilla australis, Richardson) by Aeromonas media strain A199. Aquaculture. 2004; 240:19-27.
Lipińska L, Klewicki R, Sójka M, Bonikowski R, Żyżelewicz D, Kołodziejczyk K, Klewicka E. Antifungal activity of Lactobacillus pentosus ŁOCK 0979 in the Presence of Polyols and Galactosyl-Polyols. Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins. 2018;10(2):186-200.
Brown M. Modes of action of probiotics: Recent developments. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances. 2011;10(14): 1895-1900.
Verschuere L, Rombaut G, Sorgeloos P, Verstraete W. Probiotic bacteria as biological control agents in aquaculture. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews. 2000;64(4):655-671.
Fukami K, Nishijima T, Ishida Y. Stimulative and inhibitory effects of bacteria on the growth of microalgae. Hydrobiology. 1997;358:185-191.
Cruz PM, Ibáňez AL, Hermosillo OAM, Sadd HCR. Use of probiotics in aquaculture. ISRN Microbiology. 2012;1-13.
(Article ID 916845)
Sakata T. Micro flora in the digestive tract of fish and shell-fish. In: Microbiology in Poecilotherms (Lesel R ed.), Elsevier, Amsterdam. 1990;171–176.
Balcázar JL, De Blas I, Ruiz-Zarzuela I, Cunningham D, Vendrell D, Muzquiz JL. The role of probiotics in aquaculture. Veterinary Microbiology. 2006;114(3-4): 173-186.
Sumon MS, Ahmmed F, Khushi SS, Ahmmed MK, Rouf MA, Chisty MAH, Sarower MG. Growth performance, digestive enzyme activity and immune response of Macrobrachium rosenbergii fed with probiotic Clostridium butyricum incorporated diets. Journal of King Saud University-Science. 2018;30(1):21-28.
Haroun E, Goda A, Kabir M. Effect of dietary probiotic Biogen supplementation as a growth promoter on growth performance and feed utilization of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (L.). Aquaculture Research. 2006;37(14): 1473–1480.
Miller MB, Bassler BL. Quorum sensing in bacteria. Annual Reviews in Microbiology. 2001;55(1):165-199.
Defoirdt T, Boon N, Boosier P, Verstraete W. Disruption of bacterial quorum sensing: An unexplored strategy to fight infections in aquaculture. Aquaculture. 2004;240:69-88.
Sakai M, Yoshida T, Astuta S, Kobayashi M. Enhancement of resistance to vibriosis in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) by oral administration of Clostridium butyricum bacteria. J. Fish Dis. 1995;18:187–190.
Rengpipat S, Rukpratanporn S, Piyatiratitivorakul S, Menasaveta P. Immunity enhancement in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) by a probiont bacterium (Bacillus S11). Aquaculture. 2000;191(4):271-288.
Mohapatra S, Chakraborty T, Kumar V, DeBoeck G, Mohanta KN. Aquaculture and stress management: a review of probiotic intervention. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition. 2013; 97(3):405-430.
Mamun MAA, Nasren S, Srinivasa KH, Rathore SS, Abhiman PB, Rakesh K. Heavy infection of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis in striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, Sauvage 1878) and its treatment trial by different therapeutic agents in a control environment. J Applied Aquaculture. 2019b;33:1-13.
Brett JR. Implications and assessments of environmental stress. Investigations of Fish Power Problems. 1958;69-83.
Taoka Y, Maeda H, Jo JY, Jeon MJ, Bai SC, Lee WJ, Koshio S. Growth, stress tolerance and non-specific immune response of Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus to probiotics in a closed recirculating system. Fisheries Science. 2006;72(2):310-321.
Aydın F, Çek-Yalnız Ş. Effect of probiotics on reproductive performance of fish. Natural and Engineering Sciences. 2019; 4(2):153-162.
Abasali H, Mohamad S. Effect of dietary supplementation with probiotic on reproductive performance of female livebearing ornamental fish. Research Journal of Animal Sciences. 2010; 4(4):103-107.
Gioacchini G, Maradonna F, Lombardo F, Bizzaro D, Olivotto I, Carnevali O. Increase of fecundity by probiotic administration in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Reproduction. 2010;140(6):953-959.
Ghosh S, Sinha A, Sahu C. Effect of probiotic on reproductive performance in female live bearing ornamental fish. Aquaculture Research. 2007;38(5):518-526.
Rathore SS, Murthy HS, Nasren S, Mamun MAA, Rakesh K. The role of vitamin C as growth promoter and its effect on intestinal histology in monosex nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. J. Exp. Zool. India. 2019;22(1):639-644.
Gallo RL, Hooper LV. Epithelial antimicrobial defence of the skin and intestine. Nature Reviews Immunol. 2012; 12(7):503.