Assessment of Physicochemical and Bacteriological Parameters of Borehole and Hand Dug Well Water in Michika and Environs, Adamawa State, Nigeria

Main Article Content

Priscilla Alexander
I. B. Bwatanglang
Juth Daniel

Abstract

Physicochemical and Bacteriological Parameters of Borehole and Hand dug well water of Michika town in Michika Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria and environs were assessed to determine their suitability or otherwise for drinking and domestic purposes. Ten (10) water samples, five each from boreholes and hand-dug wells, from five selected areas in Michika town, were collected during the months of January and February 2018. The water samples which are extensively used for drinking and other domestic purposes, were randomly collected and the results were compared with WHO and NAFDAC standards guidelines for drinking water. These samples were analyzed for their physicochemical characteristics (pH, temperature, electrical conductivity, TDS, Turbidity, hardness), heavy metals, Escherichia coli (E. coli) and coliform counts. The results of the investigation revealed that the physicochemical and bacteriological parameters falls within the maximum permissible limits of NAFDAC and WHO guidelines for drinking water. The physicochemical concentrations were higher in borehole water than in hand dug well water; Lead and Cadmium were not detected in all the samples. All the water samples were free from feacal contamination except in Barikin Dlaka hand dug well which contained 0.05 ± 0.001 MPN/100 ml total coliform count which is below the WHO/NAFDAC maximum permissible levels. The suitability of water for domestic and drinking purposes indicated that the water samples were within the standards prescribed for potable water. However, there is need for routine checks to ascertain the suitability or otherwise of these water sources so as to forestall outbreak of water born diseases.

Keywords:
Physiochemical, bacteriological, borehole, hand dug well, michika and environs

Article Details

How to Cite
Alexander, P., Bwatanglang, I. B., & Daniel, J. (2019). Assessment of Physicochemical and Bacteriological Parameters of Borehole and Hand Dug Well Water in Michika and Environs, Adamawa State, Nigeria. Microbiology Research Journal International, 28(6), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.9734/mrji/2019/v28i630148
Section
Original Research Article

References

Rajankar PN, Galhane SR, Tambekar DH, Ramteke DS, Wate SR. Water quality assessment of ground water resource in Nagpur Region (India) based on Water Quality Index WQI. Journal of Chemistry. 2009;6(3):905–908.

John Luczaj. Groundwater quantity and quality. Resources. 2016;5(10):1-4.

Bigas H. The global water crisis: Addressing an urgent security issue; papers for the inter action council, 2011–2012. UNU-INWEH: Hamilton, Canada; 2012.
Available:http://inweh.unu.edu/wp-content/uploads/201/05/WaterSecurity_The-Global-Water-Crisis.pdf
(Accessed on 16 December 2015)

USA Today—Pumped Dry: The Global Crisis of Vanishing Groundwater; 2015.
Available:http://www.usatoday.com/pages/interactives/groundwater/
(Accessed on 16 December 2015)

UNESCO. Water a Shared Responsibility, the United Nation World Water Development Report 2, UNESCO and Berghahn Books, New York; 2006.

Xu Y, Usher BH. Groundwater pollution in Africa. Taylor and Francis/Balkema, Leiden, The Netherlands. 2006;355.

UNEP (United Nations Environment Program). Water quality for ecosystem and human health: United Nations environment program/global environment monitoring system (UNEP/GEMS) program. 2006;1-132.

Adekoyeni O, Salako S. Microbiological, physicochemical and mineral quality of borehole water in Ijebu Land, Ogun State, Nigeria. International Journal of Science and Advanced Technology. 2012;2:23- 30.

Hamilton PA, Helsel DR. Effects of agriculture on groundwater quality in five regions of the United States. Groundwater. 1995;33:217-226.

Chandio BA. Groundwater pollution by nitrogenous fertilizers: UNESCO case study. In: UNESCO Report, Lahore, Pakistan; 1999.

Wassenaar L. Evaluation of the origin and fate of nitrate in the Abbotsford aquifer using the isotopes of 15N and 180 in NO3. Applied Geochemistry. 1995;10:391–405.

Goulding K. Nitrate leaching from arable and horticultural land, soil use and management. 2000;145–151.

NIS. Nigerian standard for drinking water quality. Nigerian Industrial Standard, Standard Organisation of Nigeria, Abuja. 2007;16-17.

World Health Organization (WHO). Guidelines for drinking water quality, first addendum to 3rd ed. Recommendations, World Health Organization, Geneva. 2006;1:185-186.

Ashbolt NJ. Microbial contamination of drinking water and diseases outcomes in developing regions. Toxicology. 2004;198:229-238.

Plate DK, Strassmann BI, Wilson ML. Water sources are associated with childhood diarrhoea prevalence in rural east-central Mali. Trop. Med. Inter. Health. 2004;9(3):416–425.

WHO, (World Health Organisation). Guidelines for drinking water quality. 2nd Edition. World Health Organisation, Geneva, Switzerland; 1993.

Zvidzai C, Mukutirwa T, Mundembe R, Sithole-Niang I. Microbial community analysis of drinking water sources from rural areas of Zimbabwe. Afri. J. Microbiol. Res. 2007;1(6):100-103.

Adeyemi GO, Adesile AO, Obayomi OB. Chemical characteristics of some well waters in Ikire, South western Nigeria. Water Resources, NAH. 2003;14:12-18.

WHO (World Health Organisation). Guidelines for drinking water quality. 3rd Edition. World Health Organisation, Geneva, Switzerland; 2004a.

Osunkiyesi AA. Physicochemical analysis of Ogun River (water samples) within two locations (Akin Olugbade and Lafenwa) in Aboekuta, Ogun State. IOSR Journal of Applied Chemistry. 2012;1(4):24-27.

Olatunji JA, Odediran OA, Obaro RI, Olasehinde PI. Assessment of groundwater quality of Ilorin metropolis using water quality index approach. Nigerian Journal of Technological Development. 2015;12(1):18-21.

Google Map Data; 2011.

Adebayo AA, Bashire BA. Seasonal variation in water quality and occurrence of water-borne diseases in Yola, Nigeria. In Proceedings of the National Conference on Population, Environment and Sustainable Development in Nigeria. University of Ado-Ekiti; 2002.

Alexander P, Janyo ND, Hassan WG. Quality assessment of surface and ground water of Hong local government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria. Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research. 2018;2(2):1-11.

Adegboyega AM, Olalude C, Odunola OA. Physicochemical and bacteriological analysis of water samples used for domestic purposes in Idi Ayunre, Oyo State, Southwestern Nigeria. IOSR Journal of Applied Chemistry. 2915;8(10):46- 50.

Joshua BO, Janet OO, Ademola AA, Adebukola KD, Oluwabusayo OI, Julius KO. Bacteriological and physicochemical assessment of water from student hostels of Osun State University, Main Campus, Osogbo, Southwset Nigeria; 2014.

Ishaku M, Kaigama U, Onyeka NR. Assessment of ground water quality using factor analysis in Mararaba-Mubi area, Northeastern Nigeria. Journal of earth sciences and Geochemical Engineering. 2011;1(1):9-33.

Tsafe AI, Hassan LG, Sahabi DM, Alhassan Y, Bala BM. Assessment of heavy metal and mineral composition in some soil minerals deposit and water from gold mining area in Northern Nigeria. International Journal of Geology and Mining. 2012;256.

Edema MO, Omemu AM, Fapetu OM. Microbiologicaland physicochemical analysis of different sources of drinking water. Nigerian Journal of Microbiology. 2001;15:57-61.

Odiba John Oko, Matthew Olaleke Aremu, Raphael Odoh, Gary Yebpella, Gideon Adue Shenge. Assessment of water quality index of borehole and well water in Wukari Town, Taraba State, Nigeria. Journal of Environment and Earth Science. 2014; 4(5):1-19.

APHA (American Public Health Association). Standard methods for examination of water and waste water, 17th ed; 1992;1268-1270.

Alexander P. Evaluation of ground water quality of Mubi town in Adamawa State Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2008;7(11):1712-1715.

Maitera ON, Ogugbuaja VO, Barminas JT. An assessment of the organic pollution indicator of river Benue in Adamawa state, Nigeria. Journal of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology. 2010;2(7): 110-116.

Tebbutt THY. Principles of water quality control. 3rd Edition. Pergamon Press. 1983;6-18.

NAFDAC. Recertification of water producers in Nigeria. 2012;27-47.

Chindo Y. Istifanus, Elisha Karu, Ishaku Ziyok, Ephraim D. Amanki. Physicochemical analysis of ground water of selected areas of Dass and Ganjuwa Local Government Areas, Bauchi State, Nigeria. World Journal of Analytical Chemistry. 2013;1(4):73-79.

Alexander P, Maitera ON, Kawuwa B. Quality assessment of groundwater in Vimtim community of Mubi North, Adamawa State, Nigeria. Journal of Physical Science and Innovation. 2011;3:34-40.

EPA. US Environmental Protection Agency Safe Drinking Water Act. EPA 816 – F – 03 –016; 2003.

Volk CJ, Hofmann Chauret C, Gagnon GA, Ranger G, Andrews RC. Implementation of chlorine dioxide disinfection: Effects of the treatment change on drinking water quality on full –scale distribution system. J. Environ. Eng. Sci. 2002;1:323-330.

WHO. Guidelines for drinking-water quality, Surveillance and control of community supplies. V.3, 2nd ed. World Health Organizations, Switzerland, Geneva; 1997.

Mombal M, Tyafa Z. Malaka, Brouckaert BM, Obi CL. Safe drinking water still a dream in rural areas of South Africa: The eastern cape province. J. of Water Science Res. and Technol. 2006;32(5): 208-213.

Murphy S. General information on specific conductance. Water Quality Monitoring. City of Boulder/USGS; 2007a.

EPA. US environment protection agency, safe drinking water act amendment; 2002.
Available:http:// www. epa. gov/safe water /mcl.Html

Shittu OB, Olaitan JO, Amusa TS. Physico-chemical and bacteriological analyses of water used for drinking and swimming purposes in Abeokuta, Nigeria. African Journal of Biomedical Research. 2008;11:285-290.

Kataria HC, Gupta M, Kumar M, Kushwaha S, Kashyap S, Trivedi S, Bhadoria R, Bandewar K. Study of physio- chemical waters in Ikire, southwestern Nigeria. Water Resources, NAH. 2003;14:12-1.