Compliance Monitoring of Microbiological and Physicochemical Parameters of Abattoirs’ Effluents Discharged into Water Bodies in Owerri, Nigeria

Main Article Content

Constance O. Egesi
Victor Ezebuiro
Anthony C. Ekeleme
Charles E. Obiukwu


Aims: To assess the quality of abattoir effluents discharged into water bodies in Owerri Municipal, Nigeria using microbiological and physicochemical approaches.

Study Design:  The study employed microbiological and physicochemical parameters to determine effluent and water quality.

Place and Duration of Study: Abattoirs in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria, between September 2014 and February 2016.

Methodology: Physicochemical and microbiological analyses were carried out on three abattoir effluents and their receiving water bodies. Counts of total heterotrophic bacteria, total coliform and faecal coliform, Vibrio, Salmonella and Shigella were carried using the plate count method.

Results: The bacterial isolates in the various samples included members of the genera Bacillus, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Escherichia, Klebsiella, Lactobacillus, Listeria, Micrococcus, Proteus, Salmonella, Serratia, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus and Vibrio. The order of increasing effluent’s total coliform and faecal counts within the different abattoirs are given as Egbu abattoir > Amakohia Ikeduru abattoir > Ahiara abattoir. For the receiving streams, the order was as follows, for the total coliform count: Egbu abattoir > Ahiara abattoir > Amakohia Ikeduru abattoir while for faecal coliform: Egbu abattoir > Amakohia Ikeduru abattoir > Ahiara abattoir. About 85.7% and 42.9% of the total bacterial isolates were found in the Egbu abattoir effluent and receiving the stream, respectively. Ahiara abattoir’s effluent had 66.7% of the bacteria while its receiving stream had 23.8%. Over 57% of the total bacterial isolates were distributed in the Amakohia Ikeduru abattoir with 33.3% for its receiving stream.

Conclusion: This study revealed that pathogenic bacteria from abattoir were constantly discharged into receiving streams, thereby presenting serious health risks. The health status of residents of Owerri who have access to these water bodies should be studied to determine the health implications of such unregulated practices.

Abattoir, wastewater, faecal coliform, bacterial diversity, physicochemical quality.

Article Details

How to Cite
Egesi, C., Ezebuiro, V., Ekeleme, A., & Obiukwu, C. (2019). Compliance Monitoring of Microbiological and Physicochemical Parameters of Abattoirs’ Effluents Discharged into Water Bodies in Owerri, Nigeria. Microbiology Research Journal International, 28(6), 1-16.
Original Research Article


Nafarnda WD, Ajayi IE, Shawulu JC, Kawe MS, Omeiza GK, Sani NA, et al. Bacteriological quality of Abattoir Effluents discharged into water bodies in Abuja, Nigeria. ISRN Vet Sci. 2012;1-5.
DOI: 10.5402/2012/515689

Eze CN, Eze PC. Effect of abattoir waste on the physicochemical and bacteriological qualities of new-artisan River in Enugu, Nigeria. Niger. J. Technol. 2018;37(1): 262-267.

Mittal SG. Characterization of the effluent wastewater from abattoirs for land application. Food Rev Int. 2004;20(3):229-256.
DOI: 10.1081/FRI-200029422

Olanike KA. Unhygienic operation of a city abattoir in south western Nigeria: Environ Impl. AJEAM/RAGEE. 2002;4(1):23-28.

Sherer BM, Miner RJ, Moore JA, Buckhouse JC. Indicator bacterial survival in stream sediments. J. Environ Qual. 1992;21(4):591–595.

Sobsey MD, Khatib LA, Hill VR, Alocilja E, Pillai S. Pathogens in animal wastes and the impacts of waste management practices on their survival, transport, and fate. White paper for The National Center for Manure and Agricultural Waste Management; 2002.

Pepperell R, Massanet-Nicolau J, Allen VM, Buncic S. Potential for spread of some bacterial and protozoan pathogens via abattoir wastes applied on agricultural land food protection. Trends. 2003;23(4):351–325.

Kosamu IBM, Mawenda J, Mapoma HWT. Water quality change due to abattoir effluent: A case on Mchesa stream in Blantyre, Malawi. Afr Journal Environ Sci Technol. 2011;5(8): 589-594.

Ubwa ST, Atoo GH, Offem JO, Abah J, Asemave K. An assessment of surface water pollution status around Gboko abattoir. Afr J Pure Appl Chem. 2013;7(3): 131-138.
DOI: 10.5897/AJPAC2013.0486

Jalal A, Rashid N, Rasool N, Akhtar M. Gene cloning and characterization of a xylanase from a newly isolated Bacillus subtilis strain R5. J. Biol Sci Biol Engineer. 2009;107:360-365.

APHA. Standard methods for the examination of water and waste water. 21 Edition. American Public Health Association. Washington D.C. USA; 2005.

Sutton. The most probable number method and its uses in enumeration, qualification, and validation. J. Valid Technol. 2010; 16(3);35-38.

Holt JG, Kreig NR, Sneath PHA, Stanley JT, Stanley ST. Bergey’s manual of determinative bacteriology. Baltimore, USA; William and Wilkins; 1994.

Chen JC, Lin CY. Responses of oxygen consumption, Ammonia-N excretion and Urea-N excretion of Penaeus chinensis exposed to ambient ammonia at different salinity and pH levels. J. Agric. 1995;136: 243-255.

Wang W, Chen L, Liu Y, Sun R. Effects of pH on survival, phosphorus concentration, adenylate energy charge and Na+, K+ ATPase activities of Penaeus chinensis and Osbeck Juveniles. Aquat Toxicol Toxicol. 2002;60:75- 83.

Raheem NK, Morenikeji OA. Impact of abattoir effluents on surface waters of the Alamuyo stream in Ibadan J. Appl Sci Environ Manag. 2008;12(1):73–77.

Hassan IA, Campbell C, Ademola TG. Effect of abattoir effluent on surrounding underground water quality: A case study of governor road abattoir at Ikotun, Lagos state. International Journal of Advances in Pharmacy, Biology and Chemistry. 2014; 3(4):1-8.

Eze VC, Omeh YN, Ugweje CD. Microbiological and physicochemical assessment of soil contaminated with lairage effluent in Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria. Int. J. Pharm Boil Sci. 2013;8(2): 50-56.

WHO. Nitrate and nitrite in drinking-water. Background document for development of WHO Guidelines for drinking-water quality. WHO/SDE/WSH/07.01/16/Rev/1; 2011.

Smith DG, Davies-Colley RJ. If visual water clarity is the issue, then why not measure it?: New York City Department of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Water Supply, National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, Hamilton, New Zealand; 2001.

Atuanya EI, Nwogu NA, Akpor EA. Effluent qualities of government and private abattoirs and their effects on Ikpoba River, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. Adv. Biol. Res. 2012;6(5):196-201.
DOI: 10.5829/idosi.abr.2012.6.5.6672

Atobatele OE. Studies on physicochemical parameters, plankton and benthos of River Ogunpa, Ibadan. M. Sc Thesis University of Ibadan, Ibadan Nigeria; 2000.

APHA, AWWA, WPCF. Standard Methods for the examination of water and waste-water. 20th Edition; 1999.

Osibanjo O, Adie GU. Impact of effluent from Bodija abattoir on the physic-chemical parameters of Oshunkaye stream in Ibadan. Afr J Biotechnol. 2007;6(15): 1806-1811.

Bazrafshan E, Kord MF, Farzadkia M, Ownagh KA, Mahvi AH. Slaughterhouse wastewater treatment by combined chemical coagulation and electrocoagu-lation process. PLoS One. 2012;7(6).
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0040108

Bonde CJ. Bacterial indicators of water pollution. Adv Aqua Microbiol. 1995;1:274-317.

Oloruntoba E, Adebayo A, Omokhodion FO. Sanitary conditions of abattoirs in Ibadan, Southwest Nigeria. Afr. J. Med Med Sci. 2014;43(3):231-237.

Siyanbola TO, Ajanaku KO, James OO, Olugbuyiro JAO, Adekoya JO. Physico-chemical characteristics of industrial effluents in Lagos state. Nig. Sci. Tech. 2011;1:49-54.

Adesemoye AO, Opere BO, Makinde SCO. Microbial content of abattoir wastewater and its contaminated soil in Lagos, Nigeria. Afr J. Biotechnol. 2006; 5(20):1963-1968.

Rabah AB, Oyeleke SB, Manga SB, Hassan LG, Ijah UJJ. Microbiological and physico-chemical assessment of soil contaminated with abattoir effluents in Sokoto metropolis, Nigeria. Sci World J. 2010;5(3):1-4.

Bala JD. Occurrence of faecal coliforms in water sources in Jimeta-Yola, Nigeria. J Environ Sci. 2006;10(2): 64-69.

Ogbonna DN, Igbenijie M. Characteristics of microorganisms associated with waste collection sites in Port Harcourt City, Nigeria. Nig. J. Microbiol. 2006;20(3): 1427-1434.

Anunobi AI, Adedayo OF, Oyetola SA, Umar SD, Ayuba P. An evaluation of the effects of abattoir wastes/effluents on its residential environs in Minna, Niger state, Nigeria. Herald J. Geogr Reg Plann. 2015;4(1):7 –15.

Federal Environmental Protection 1 Agency (FEPA). Guidelines and standards for environmental pollution control in Nigeria, Ministry of Environment, Lagos, Nigeria; 2015.

Narayana B, Sunil, K. A spectro-photometric method for the determination of nitrite and nitrate. Eurasian Journal of Analytical Chemistry. 2009;4(2):204-214.

Rojas LX, McDowell LR, Cousins RJ, Martin FG, Wilkinson NS, Johnson AB. Velasquez JB. Interaction of different organic and inorganic zinc and copper sources fed to rats. J. Trace Elements Med. Biol. Not GLP, Published. 1996;10: 139-144.