Evaluation of Phytochemicals and Antimicrobial Potentials of Chromolaena odorata (L.) on Selected Human Pathogens

Main Article Content

Z. K. Egbunu
O. O. Owoyemi
M. K. Oladunmoye
O. J. Abraham
O. I. Afolami

Abstract

Aims: This research was designed to evaluate the phytochemicals present in the leaf extracts of Chromolaena odorata L. and their antimicrobial activities.


Methodology: Dried leaves of C. odorata were pulverized and subjected to ethanolic and aqueous extraction. The extracts were qualitatively and quantitatively screened for phytochemicals using standard methods. The inhibitory activity of the leaf extracts were evaluated against clinical pathogens; Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis and Candida albicans using agar well diffusion technique at 100 mg/mL and 200 mg/mL concentrations.


Results: The ethanolic extract of C. odorata had a better percentage yield of 5.49 g, followed by aqueous extract (3.5 g). The phytochemical screening conducted on the extracts revealed the presence of flavonoid, alkaloid, saponin, cardiac glycoside, steroids, tannins and terpenoids. The ethanolic extract exhibited better antimicrobial activity on S. typhi, S. aureus, E. coli, Ps. aeruginosa and C. albicans compared to the aqueous extract. This could be as a result of the higher extraction capability of the ethanol to penetrate easily into the cellular membrane and dissolve the intracellular inclusions from the plant materials than the aqueous solvent. The zones of inhibition of ethanolic extract at 100 mg/mL ranges from 2.33±0.33 mm to 9.50±0.36 mm with the lowest efficacy observed on P. mirabilis and highest on S. aureus. S. typhi was susceptible to the aqueous extract of the plant at this concentration with inhibitory zone of 4.00±0.00 mm. The ethanolic extract of the plant was also effective against C. albicans with inhibitory zone of 4.17±0.17 mm at 100 mg/mL. Chloramphenicol inhibited all the test bacteria with the highest efficacy on E. coli (16.33±0.03 mm) and ketoconazole at 25 mg/mL had a better antifungal activity on C. albicans compared to the observed antifungal activities of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of C. odorata at 100 mg/mL. Furthermore, the test organisms were more susceptible to the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of C. odorata at 200 mg/mL with zones of inhibition ranging from 3.23±0.15 mm to 12.33±0.33 mm. The lowest being observed on E.coli and highest on S. typhi (ethanolic extract). K. Pneumoniae and P. mirabilis were resistant to the aqueous extract of C. odorata. All the test bacteria were susceptible to the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of C. odorata at 200 mg/mL extracts concentration. Moreover, C. albicans was susceptible to the inhibitory effect of C. odorata at this concentration with inhibitory zones of 3.00±0.00 mm and 5.33±0.33 mm on aqueous and ethanolic extracts respectively.


Conclusion: The findings from this study revealed the antimicrobial activities of C. odorata on the test pathogens which are in close proximity in comparison with the synthetic antimicrobial agents and thus upon purification, can be harnessed as a lead for the development of natural products derived antimicrobials in drug discovery against infections caused by these human pathogens evaluated in this study.

Keywords:
Antimicrobial potential, phytochemicals, Chromolaena odorata L., human pathogens.

Article Details

How to Cite
Egbunu, Z., Owoyemi, O., Oladunmoye, M., Abraham, O., & Afolami, O. (2019). Evaluation of Phytochemicals and Antimicrobial Potentials of Chromolaena odorata (L.) on Selected Human Pathogens. Microbiology Research Journal International, 27(6), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.9734/mrji/2019/v27i630116
Section
Original Research Article

Article Metrics


References

Karaman L, Sahin F, Gulluce M, Ogutcu H, Sngul M, Adiguzel A. Antimicrobial actvity of aqueous and methanol extracts of Juniperus oxycedrus L. J Ethnopharmacol. 2003;85:231-235.

Nurul HAK, Mamat AS, Effendy AWM, Hussin ZM, Sayed MZH. The antimicrobial effect of Chromolaena odorata extract on gram-positive bacteria. 11th International Conference of the Association for Tropical Veterinary Medicine and 16thVeterinary Association Malaysia congress 23-27 August. 2004;342-343.

Alisi CS, Nwaogu LA, Ibegbulem CO, Ujowundu CU. Antimicrobial action of methanol extract of Chromolaena odorata-linn is logistic and exerted by inhibition of dehydrogenase enzymes. J Res Biol. 2011;3:209-216.

Hart CA, Kariuki, S. Antimicrobial resistance in developing countries. Br Med J. 1998;317:647-650.

Benkeblia N. Antimicrobial activity of essential oil extracts of various onions (Allium cepa) and Garlic (Allium sativum). Lebensm Wiss Technol. 2004;37:263-268.

Jansen AM, Cheffer JJC, Svendsen AB. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils: A 1976-1986 literature review. Aspects of test methods. Plant Med. 1987;40:395– 398.

Saxena G, McCutcheon AR, Farmer S, Towers GHN, Hancock REW. Antimicrobial constituents of Rhus glabra. J Ethnopharmacol. 1994;42:95-99.

Daniel M. Impediments preventing India becoming a herbal giant. Curr Sci. 1999;87:275-276.

Phan TT, Wang L, See P. Phenolic compounds of Chromolaenaodorata protect cultured skin cells from oxidative damage: implication for cutaneous wound healing. Biol Pharm Bull. 2001;24:1373–1379.

Ogbonnia SO, Mbaka GO, Anyika EN, Osegbo OM, Igbokwe NH. Evaluation of acute toxicity in mice and subchronic toxicity of hydroethanolic extract of Chromolena odorata (L.) king and Robinson (Fam. Asteraceae) in rats. Agric Biol J North Am. 2010;1(5):859-865.

Fasola TR, Iyamah PC. Comparing the phytochemical composition of some plant parts commonly used in the treatment of malaria. Int J Pure Appl Sci Technol. 2014;21(1):1-11.

Gill LS. Ethnomedical uses of plants in Nigeria. Uniben Press, Benin City. 1992;15-65.

Owolabi MS, Akintayo O, Kamil OY, Labunmi L, Heather EV, Tuten AJ, Setzer WW. Chemical and bioactivity of essential oil of Chromolaena odorata from Nigeria. J Nat Prod. 2010;4(1):72-78.

Pirotta MV, Garland SM. Genital Candida species detected in samples from women in Melbourne, Australia before and after treatment with antibiotics. J. Clin. Microbiol. 2006;44(9):3213-3217

Akinpelu DA, Aiyegoro OA, Okoh AR. The bioactive potentials of two medicinal plants commonly used as folklore remedies among some tribes in West Africa. Afr J Biotechnol. 2009;8(8):1660-1664.

Douye VZ, Elijah IO, Medubari BN. Antibacterial Activity of Ethanol, Crude and Water Extract of Chromolaena odorata Leaves on S. typhi and E. coli. Greener J Microbiol. 2013;1(2):016-019.

Azoro C. Antibacterial activity of crude extract of Azadirachta indica on Salmonella typhi. World J Biotechnol. 2000;3:347-35.

Ayodele OA, Akinyosoye FA, Arotupin DJ, Owoyemi OO, Oyindamola AB. Phytochemical screening and antifungal activities of Zingiber officinale (Roscoe) on mycotoxigenic fungi associated with the deterioration of Pennisetum glaucum grains. J Adv Microbiol. 2018;13(1):1-11.

Abraham OJ, Nwobodo HA, Ngwu BAF, Onwuatuegwu JTC, Egbunu ZK, Yusuf D, Onuh I, Innocent IU. Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial property of Jatropha curcas on Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli, Niger J Microbiol. 2017;31(1):3839-3845.

National Committe for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Methods for dilution, antimicrobial susceptibility tests for bacteria that grow aerobically. 5th ed. 2000;102-105.

Hena JS, Adamu AK, Iortsuun DN, Olonitola OS. Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial effect of the aqueous and methanolic extracts of roots of Balanites aegyptiaca (del.) on some bacteria species. Science World J. 2010;5(2):1597-6343.

Bergey’s manual of systematic bacteriology; 1984.
(Accessed on 10th February, 2016)
Available:https://www.worldcat.org/title/bergeys-manual-of-systematic- bacteriology/oclc/9042846

Bauer AW, Kirby MDK, Sherras JC, Trick M. Antibiotic susceptibility testing by standard single disc diffusion method. Am J Clin Pathol. 2003;45:4-496.

Prescott LM, Harley PJ, Klein AD. Microbiology. 7th ed. Singapore: McGraw Hill Publisher. 2008;94-122.

Tiwari P, Kumar, B Kaur M, Kaur G, Kaur H. Phytochemical screening and extraction: A review. Int Pharm Sci. 2011;1(1):98-106.

Ncube NS, Afolayan AJ, Okoh AI. Assessment techniques of antimicrobial properties of natural compounds of plant origin: current methods and future trends. Afr J Biotechnol. 2008;7(12):1797-1806.

Owoyemi OO, Oladunmoye MK. phytochemical screening and antibacterial activities of Bidens pilosa L. and Tridax procumbens L. on skin pathogens. Int J Mod Biol Med. 2017;8(1):24–46. USA.

Obadoni BO, Ochuko PO. Phytochemical studies and comparative efficacy of the crude extracts of some haemostatic plants in Edo and Delta states of Nigeria. Glo J Pure and Appl Sci. 2001;8:203-208.

Sukanya SL, Sudisha J, Prakash HS, Fathima SK. Isolation and characterization of antimicrobial compound from Chromolaena odorata. J Phytol. 2011;3(10):26-32.

Owoyemi OO, Oladunmoye MK. Antimicrobial activities of Bidens pilosa and Tridax procumbens on skin pathogens. Beau - Bassin mauritius: Lambert Academic Publishing; 2018.
ISBN:978-613-8-33989-2

Aiyegoro OA, Okoh AI. Use of bioactive plant products in combination with standared antibiotics: Implications in antimicrobial chemotherapy. J Med Plants Res. 2009;3(13):1147-1152.

Eze EA, Oruche NE, Onuora VC, Eze CN. Antibacterial screening of crude ethanolic leaf extracts of four medicinal plants. J Asian Sci Res. 2013;3(5):431-439.

Negi PS, Jayaprakasha GK. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Punica granatum peel extracts. J Food Sci. 2003;68:1473–1477.

Kokoska L, Polesny Z, Rada V, Nepovim A, Vanek T. Screening of some Siberian medicinal plants for antimicrobial activity. J Ethnopharmacol. 2002;82:51-53.